Principia Book Of Newton In Hindi Pdf
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Read English Hindi. Prev Next. His father, also named Isaac Newton, had died three months before. When Newton was three, his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother. His mother, widowed for the second time, attempted to make him a farmer, an occupation he hated.
Isaac Newton’s Discoveries and Inventions
He laid the foundation for differential and integral calculus. His work on optics and gravitation make him one of the greatest scientists the world has known. View twenty-four larger pictures. Biography Isaac Newton 's life can be divided into three quite distinct periods. The first is his boyhood days from up to his appointment to a chair in The second period from to was the highly productive period in which he was Lucasian professor at Cambridge.
The third period nearly as long as the other two combined saw Newton as a highly paid government official in London with little further interest in mathematical research. Isaac Newton was born in the manor house of Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire.
Although by the calendar in use at the time of his birth he was born on Christmas Day , we give the date of 4 January in this biography which is the "corrected" Gregorian calendar date bringing it into line with our present calendar.
The Gregorian calendar was not adopted in England until Isaac Newton came from a family of farmers but never knew his father, also named Isaac Newton, who died in October , three months before his son was born. Although Isaac's father owned property and animals which made him quite a wealthy man, he was completely uneducated and could not sign his own name. Isaac's mother Hannah Ayscough remarried Barnabas Smith the minister of the church at North Witham, a nearby village, when Isaac was two years old.
The young child was then left in the care of his grandmother Margery Ayscough at Woolsthorpe. Basically treated as an orphan, Isaac did not have a happy childhood. His grandfather James Ayscough was never mentioned by Isaac in later life and the fact that James left nothing to Isaac in his will, made when the boy was ten years old, suggests that there was no love lost between the two.
There is no doubt that Isaac felt very bitter towards his mother and his step-father Barnabas Smith. When examining his sins at age nineteen, Isaac listed:- Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. Upon the death of his stepfather in , Newton lived in an extended family consisting of his mother, his grandmother, one half-brother, and two half-sisters.
Although this was only five miles from his home, Isaac lodged with the Clark family at Grantham. However he seems to have shown little promise in academic work. His school reports described him as 'idle' and 'inattentive'. His mother, by now a lady of reasonable wealth and property, thought that her eldest son was the right person to manage her affairs and her estate.
Isaac was taken away from school but soon showed that he had no talent, or interest, in managing an estate. An uncle, William Ayscough, decided that Isaac should prepare for entering university and, having persuaded his mother that this was the right thing to do, Isaac was allowed to return to the Free Grammar School in Grantham in to complete his school education.
This time he lodged with Stokes, who was the headmaster of the school, and it would appear that, despite suggestions that he had previously shown no academic promise, Isaac must have convinced some of those around him that he had academic promise.
Some evidence points to Stokes also persuading Isaac's mother to let him enter university, so it is likely that Isaac had shown more promise in his first spell at the school than the school reports suggest. Another piece of evidence comes from Isaac's list of sins referred to above.
He lists one of his sins as We know nothing about what Isaac learnt in preparation for university, but Stokes was an able man and almost certainly gave Isaac private coaching and a good grounding. There is no evidence that he learnt any mathematics, but we cannot rule out Stokes introducing him to Euclid 's Elements which he was well capable of teaching although there is evidence mentioned below that Newton did not read Euclid before Anecdotes abound about a mechanical ability which Isaac displayed at the school and stories are told of his skill in making models of machines, in particular of clocks and windmills.
However, when biographers seek information about famous people there is always a tendency for people to report what they think is expected of them, and these anecdotes may simply be made up later by those who felt that the most famous scientist in the world ought to have had these skills at school. He was older than most of his fellow students but, despite the fact that his mother was financially well off, he entered as a sizar. A sizar at Cambridge was a student who received an allowance toward college expenses in exchange for acting as a servant to other students.
There is certainly some ambiguity in his position as a sizar, for he seems to have associated with "better class" students rather than other sizars. Westfall see [ 23 ] or [ 24 ] has suggested that Newton may have had Humphrey Babington, a distant relative who was a Fellow of Trinity, as his patron.
This reasonable explanation would fit well with what is known and mean that his mother did not subject him unnecessarily to hardship as some of his biographers claim. Newton's aim at Cambridge was a law degree. Instruction at Cambridge was dominated by the philosophy of Aristotle but some freedom of study was allowed in the third year of the course. Newton studied the philosophy of Descartes , Gassendi , Hobbes , and in particular Boyle.
The mechanics of the Copernican astronomy of Galileo attracted him and he also studied Kepler 's Optics. It is a fascinating account of how Newton's ideas were already forming around He headed the text with a Latin statement meaning " Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my best friend is truth" showing himself a free thinker from an early stage.
How Newton was introduced to the most advanced mathematical texts of his day is slightly less clear. According to de Moivre , Newton's interest in mathematics began in the autumn of when he bought an astrology book at a fair in Cambridge and found that he could not understand the mathematics in it. Attempting to read a trigonometry book, he found that he lacked knowledge of geometry and so decided to read Barrow 's edition of Euclid 's Elements.
The first few results were so easy that he almost gave up but he Returning to the beginning, Newton read the whole book with a new respect. Newton also studied Wallis 's Algebra and it appears that his first original mathematical work came from his study of this text. He read Wallis 's method for finding a square of equal area to a parabola and a hyperbola which used indivisibles. Newton made notes on Wallis 's treatment of series but also devised his own proofs of the theorems writing:- Thus Wallis doth it, but it may be done thus It would be easy to think that Newton's talent began to emerge on the arrival of Barrow to the Lucasian chair at Cambridge in when he became a Fellow at Trinity College.
Certainly the date matches the beginnings of Newton's deep mathematical studies. However, it would appear that the date is merely a coincidence and that it was only some years later that Barrow recognised the mathematical genius among his students.
Despite some evidence that his progress had not been particularly good, Newton was elected a scholar on 28 April and received his bachelor's degree in April It would appear that his scientific genius had still not emerged, but it did so suddenly when the plague closed the University in the summer of and he had to return to Lincolnshire.
There, in a period of less than two years, while Newton was still under 25 years old, he began revolutionary advances in mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy.
While Newton remained at home he laid the foundations for differential and integral calculus, several years before its independent discovery by Leibniz. The 'method of fluxions', as he termed it, was based on his crucial insight that the integration of a function is merely the inverse procedure to differentiating it.
Taking differentiation as the basic operation, Newton produced simple analytical methods that unified many separate techniques previously developed to solve apparently unrelated problems such as finding areas, tangents , the lengths of curves and the maxima and minima of functions.
When the University of Cambridge reopened after the plague in , Newton put himself forward as a candidate for a fellowship. In October he was elected to a minor fellowship at Trinity College but, after being awarded his Master's Degree, he was elected to a major fellowship in July which allowed him to dine at the Fellows' Table.
In July Barrow tried to ensure that Newton's mathematical achievements became known to the world. He sent Newton's text De Analysi to Collins in London writing:- [ Newton ] brought me the other day some papers, wherein he set down methods of calculating the dimensions of magnitudes like that of Mr Mercator concerning the hyperbola, but very general; as also of resolving equations; which I suppose will please you; and I shall send you them by the next.
Collins corresponded with all the leading mathematicians of the day so Barrow 's action should have led to quick recognition.
Collins showed Brouncker , the President of the Royal Society , Newton's results with the author's permission but after this Newton requested that his manuscript be returned. Collins could not give a detailed account but de Sluze and Gregory learnt something of Newton's work through Collins.
Barrow resigned the Lucasian chair in to devote himself to divinity, recommending that Newton still only 27 years old be appointed in his place. Shortly after this Newton visited London and twice met with Collins but, as he wrote to Gregory Newton's first work as Lucasian Professor was on optics and this was the topic of his first lecture course begun in January He had reached the conclusion during the two plague years that white light is not a simple entity.
Every scientist since Aristotle had believed that white light was a basic single entity, but the chromatic aberration in a telescope lens convinced Newton otherwise. When he passed a thin beam of sunlight through a glass prism Newton noted the spectrum of colours that was formed. He argued that white light is really a mixture of many different types of rays which are refracted at slightly different angles, and that each different type of ray produces a different spectral colour.
Newton was led by this reasoning to the erroneous conclusion that telescopes using refracting lenses would always suffer chromatic aberration. He therefore proposed and constructed a reflecting telescope. In Newton was elected a fellow of the Royal Society after donating a reflecting telescope.
Also in Newton published his first scientific paper on light and colour in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. The paper was generally well received but Hooke and Huygens objected to Newton's attempt to prove, by experiment alone, that light consists of the motion of small particles rather than waves.
The reception that his publication received did nothing to improve Newton's attitude to making his results known to the world. He was always pulled in two directions, there was something in his nature which wanted fame and recognition yet another side of him feared criticism and the easiest way to avoid being criticised was to publish nothing. Certainly one could say that his reaction to criticism was irrational, and certainly his aim to humiliate Hooke in public because of his opinions was abnormal.
However, perhaps because of Newton's already high reputation, his corpuscular theory reigned until the wave theory was revived in the 19 th century. Newton's relations with Hooke deteriorated further when, in , Hooke claimed that Newton had stolen some of his optical results. Although the two men made their peace with an exchange of polite letters, Newton turned in on himself and away from the Royal Society which he associated with Hooke as one of its leaders. He delayed the publication of a full account of his optical researches until after the death of Hooke in Newton's Opticks appeared in It dealt with the theory of light and colour and with investigations of the colours of thin sheets 'Newton's rings' and diffraction of light.
To explain some of his observations he had to use a wave theory of light in conjunction with his corpuscular theory. His mother died in the following year and he withdrew further into his shell, mixing as little as possible with people for a number of years.
Newton's greatest achievement was his work in physics and celestial mechanics, which culminated in the theory of universal gravitation. By Newton had early versions of his three laws of motion. He had also discovered the law giving the centrifugal force on a body moving uniformly in a circular path. However he did not have a correct understanding of the mechanics of circular motion. Newton's novel idea of was to imagine that the Earth's gravity influenced the Moon, counter- balancing its centrifugal force.
From his law of centrifugal force and Kepler 's third law of planetary motion, Newton deduced the inverse-square law. In Newton corresponded with Hooke who had written to Newton claiming M Nauenberg writes an account of the next events:- After his correspondence with Hooke , Newton, by his own account, found a proof that Kepler's areal law was a consequence of centripetal forces, and he also showed that if the orbital curve is an ellipse under the action of central forces then the radial dependence of the force is inverse square with the distance from the centre.
No work of science has drawn more attention from philosophers than Newton's Principia. The reasons for this, however, and consequently the focus of the attention have changed significantly from one century to the next. During the 20 th Century philosophers have viewed the Principia in the context of Einstein's new theory of gravity in his theory of general relativity. The main issues have concerned the relation between Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity and what the need to replace the former with the latter says about the nature, scope, and limits of scientific knowledge. During most of the 18 th Century, by contrast, Newton's theory of gravity remained under dispute, especially because of the absence of a mechanism — in particular, a contact mechanism — producing gravitational forces. The philosophic literature correspondingly endeavored to clarify and to resolve, one way or the other, the dispute over whether the Principia should or should not be viewed as methodologically well founded. By the s Newton's theory of gravity had become established among those engaged in research in orbital mechanics and physical geodesy, leading to the Principia becoming the exemplar of science at its most successful.
In the heady atmosphere of 17th Century England, with the expansion of the British empire in full swing, grand old universities like Oxford and Cambridge were producing many great scientists and mathematicians. But the greatest of them all was undoubtedly Sir Isaac Newton. Physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, Newton is considered by many to be one of the most influential men in human history. Although largely synonymous in the minds of the general public today with gravity and the story of the apple tree, Newton remains a giant in the minds of mathematicians everywhere on a par with the all-time greats like Archimedes and Gauss , and he greatly influenced the subsequent path of mathematical development. Over two miraculous years, during the time of the Great Plague of , the young Newton developed a new theory of light, discovered and quantified gravitation, and pioneered a revolutionary new approach to mathematics: infinitesimal calculus. Unlike the static geometry of the Greeks , calculus allowed mathematicians and engineers to make sense of the motion and dynamic change in the changing world around us, such as the orbits of planets, the motion of fluids, etc.
Sir Isaac Newton exerted a profound influence on many aspects of science, notably on optics and dynamics, through his great mastery of precise experiments, but he was also a celebrated writer on religion, scientific method and the philosophy of science. He was born at the Christmas following the death of Galileo and would later declare his indebtedness to that Italian and to the Pole, Copernicus:. If I have seen a little farther than others it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants The Prism Experiment. His investigations into optics commenced in at the end of an annus mirabilis when, at home in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire due to the bubonic plague which was raging in Cambridge, he investigated gravity, calculus and the laws of motion. It had been thought previously that colour was created by the mixing of light and darkness. Newton noted, however, that the blended print on the white page of a book appears grey, not coloured, when viewed from a distance.
ISAAC NEWTON: Math & Calculus
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I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. This thought offers a rare insight into the workings of great minds like Newton. An inherent curiosity about the world, an appreciation of beauty, the excitement of exploring a mystery and a relentless pursuit of truth are the prime driving forces of a creative mind.
Я протестую… - У нас вирус, сэр. Моя интуиция подсказывает мне… - Что ж, ваша интуиция на сей раз вас обманула, мисс Милкен. В первый раз в жизни. Мидж стояла на своем: - Но, сэр.
И тогда он стал искать иные возможности. Так начал обретать форму второй план. Стратмор вдруг увидел шанс выиграть на двух фронтах сразу, осуществить две мечты, а не одну.
Она выглядела как первокурсница, попавшая под дождь, а он был похож на студента последнего курса, одолжившего ей свою куртку. Впервые за многие годы коммандер почувствовал себя молодым. Его мечта была близка к осуществлению.
Я хотел внести исправления тихо и спокойно. Изначальный план состоял в том, чтобы сделать это незаметно и позволить Танкадо продать пароль.