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- Organizational Discourse A Language Ideology Power Perspective 2004
- World Englishes: A Critical Analysis
- Historical Archaeology & Anthropological Sciences
Organizational Discourse A Language Ideology Power Perspective 2004
Refworks Account Login. Open Collections. UBC Theses and Dissertations. Featured Collection. Students continue to experience discrimination and gatekeeping on the basis of perceived language competencies through the enactment of language ideology throughout their educational careers. This multiple case study examined how five English language learners ELLs encountered hegemonic language ideologies in their mainstream courses at a North American college and how those encounters impacted their identities.
The participants in this study encountered hegemonic language ideologies predominantly through assessment practices and explicit instances of Othering. As a result, they often suffered inequitable grading practices which led to lower grades, and many expressed a lack of confidence in their language competencies.
While many students took up these oppressive ideologies and reproduced them through how they positioned themselves and others in interactions in and outside of class, some participants resisted hegemonic language ideologies. The implications of these findings highlight the need for educators and educational institutions alike to recognize hegemonic language ideologies as a significant contributing factor to institutionalized racism.
Thus, this study reaffirms the need for language awareness or language diversity training for mainstream iv instructors and students to examine both their own ideologies and exactly what constitutes equitable pedagogical practices Bucholtz, ; Gee, a; Lippi-Green, ; Wolfram, In particular, the use of critical language awareness which informs students about language ideologies in comparison to linguistic facts may help empower them to resist the hegemonic language ideologies they encounter throughout their educational career Fairclough, ; Siegel, Data was collected primarily through interviews spanning over a three-month term as well as reflective journals kept by the participants and documents from their courses such as graded assignments, syllabi, and rubrics.
Findings indicated that the participants experienced a wide range of oppressive practices in their classes ranging from grading practices that placed an inequitable emphasis on unrealistic grammar accuracy to explicit instances of racism. The participants often reproduced these ideologies by referring to themselves as less competent than native speakers of English. However, one participant in particular exemplified how students can resist inequity and oppression they experience in their academic careers.
Meghan Corella, and my committee members Dr. Sandra Zappa-Hollman and Dr. Meike Wernicke for their continuous support and encouragement throughout the process of this study.
Your detailed feedback and advice have been invaluable to me, and I am so thankful for the chance to work with and learn from you all. To the participants in this study, I am beyond grateful for your assistance and collaboration in this project.
I thank my friends and colleagues at UBC who gave me countless hours of laughter and joy, inspiration, valuable discussions, and, of course, help titling my papers. And to my friends, Kathryn, Savanna, and Mack, thank you for your patience and love, for always letting me bounce ideas off of you, and for making me smile through all the ups and downs of research.
I am endlessly grateful to my co-workers, who have been great mentors and friends to me throughout this journey, for their feedback throughout the development of this paper. I also thank Dr.
Cathy McDonald, my undergraduate mentor; I cannot summarize the inspiration you have been to me as an educator, discourse analyst, and as a person.
Lastly, I would like to thank God and my family. To my parents, grandparents, and husband: your constant support, prayer, and love are what made this all possible. I thank you for the endless encouragement and strength you have given me to pursue my dreams. I could never have done it without you. Yet, mainstream instructors receive little to no training regarding language ideologies, linguistics, or language variation Bucholtz, ; Gee, a; Lippi-Green, Thus, this situation warrants a closer examination of language ideologies within higher education mainstream courses.
That is, hegemonic ideologies are widespread beliefs, with little to no empirical support, that work to empower dominant discourse communities. Two examples of this that are frequently discussed in research Holliday, ; Lippi-Green, ; MacSwan, and prevalent in this study are native speakerism and standard language ideology which will be discussed in greater detail along with other language ideologies in chapters 2, 4, and 5. Native speakerism is founded on the belief that native speakers of standardized English do not make grammatical errors and that their language never deviates from the standardized variety of English.
However, in reality, 2 no speaker maintains a singular register or variety, as language naturally changes over time and space Lippi-Green, Early conceptions of deficit theory went as far as to frame those who do not speak standardized English as handicapped Lippi-Green, , p. While such beliefs regarding language and dialect have been challenged by some scholars, deficit attitudes remain, positioning students only in terms of what they supposedly cannot or do not do, while ignoring the legitimacy and sophistication of their own language varieties and intellectual property Lippi-Green, The emphasis on academic English can act as a vessel for these ideologies since this register is regarded as closely resembling varieties that the upper class is perceived as speaking, further privileging the privileged while denigrating marginalized variations of English by labeling them as improper or out of place in educational settings Gee, a; Gee, ; MacSwan, ; Siegel, To exacerbate the problem, in-service and pre-service teachers are typically unexposed to the concept of language ideology or how to be aware of it.
When they do learn about language ideology, instructors are not always responsive and require ongoing support and training Weaver, ; Wolfram, I aim to explore the enactment of language ideology through a critical perspective with the goal of understanding and disrupting the status quo of inequity in education.
Educational institutions widely disregard linguistic fact in favor of hegemonic language ideologies despite the role of fact-based sciences in education Wolfram, Therefore, the impacts of entrenched language ideologies in higher education must be further examined to identify ways in which hegemonic language ideologies may be disrupted.
Furthermore, I seek to examine student identity in relation to language ideology so as to give instructors and researchers insight into how to better support students, whether through critical pedagogy or interpersonal interactions. It is my hope that in light of this, instructors and institutional powers, such as policy makers, deans, and presidents, in educational institutions may see the urgent necessity to examine the language ideologies promoted within educational contexts.
While much work has examined language ideology in secondary education De Costa, ; Lippi-Green, ; Weaver, , often in countries in which English is taught as a foreign language Cho, , there has been a call to increase critical understandings of language ideology in North American contexts De Costa, ; Siegel, ; Weaver In the first chapter, I introduce the topic of hegemonic language ideologies in educational institutions and presented the research questions.
Chapter 3 addresses the research methods used in this study. In chapter 4, I present my findings addressing how students encountered language ideologies in their mainstream courses. Then in chapter 5, I discuss how hegemonic language ideologies impacted the participants and their identities. Lastly, in chapter 6, I further discuss the findings in light of related research and present the implications of these findings, specifically for educators and institutions.
Furthermore, I will review a variety of studies on language ideologies in education which exemplify both how language ideology may be enacted e. These discourses extend beyond the production of language and include social practices and influence how people understand and interact within the world around them Bucholtz, ; Gee, a; Fairclough, ; As a social practice, discourse is both influenced by society and in turn changes society.
As Bucholtz states: 7 For many scholars outside of linguistics…the notion of discourse is often broader than it is for linguists, referring not simply to particular instances of speech or writing but more generally to the way in which a topic such as race is conceptually framed at a particular historical and cultural moment, especially within powerful institutional contexts like government, medicine, law, or education.
Thus, meaning is established within social contexts, and the same text may be understood differently between contexts. Furthermore, in any text, there is an intermingling of different discourses and genres, also known as interdiscursivity Alford, ; Fairclough, ; Gee, a. Understanding these complexities, discourse analysts examine the linguistic details of texts as I describe in more detail in the next chapter in relation to their larger social contexts to uncover deeper meanings within said texts.
Power, then, becomes a central concern in critical theorizations of discourse. Power comes from a variety of sources and is embedded within discourses and larger social institutions. Dominant discourses refer to the prevailing discourse communities with their social norms and practices that hold more power over the social world as well as grant more power to people who are recognized as belonging to dominant discourse communities Fairclough, ; Gee, a.
In any interaction, people draw on and negotiate existing power relations, institutional or personal, influenced by factors such as class, race, social role, and gender. Interpersonally, 8 power influences the boundaries of interaction and the social practices deemed acceptable within the interaction.
At the institutional level, power pertains to who can shape and change discourse communities and the social practices within them. Thus, dominant discourses are continually shaped by the powerful to maintain their own power. However, that is not to say power cannot be resisted or removed; power is always a site of struggle, and all social development must come from power struggles Fairclough, Thus, hegemony is essential to understanding the process of constructing ideology.
Hegemony gives way to the erasure of marginalized people and their social practices, including language Hammar, And through hegemony, ideologies are maintained to empower dominant discourses.
Throughout this study, and others Cho, ; De Costa, , this is reflected through instances in which ELLs take up and reproduce language ideologies which are oppressive to them.
Fairclough originally conceptualized coercion as using threats, mainly of physical harm, to control people.
While through the lens of linguistic imperialism, which often occurred with the support of militaristic colonization Philipson, , physical threats may be used, contexts such as higher education can coerce marginalized students to accept hegemonic or 9 oppressive language ideologies through non-physical means such as through threat of academic failure, expulsion, or the revocation of funding such as in the case of scholarships as well as obscuring vital information, resources, or services from particular student groups Kubota, Consent may be full or partial, also referred to as acquiescence or reluctant compliance.
In part, consent is achieved through the naturalization of oppressive language ideologies deeply entrenched in educational institutions Fairclough, ; Wolfram, And as such, students come to view their encounters with hegemonic language ideologies as normal or even justified experiences throughout their academic careers. In turn, they then internalize and reproduce hegemonic language ideologies through the ways they view and position themselves and others Cho ; De Costa, As a result, hegemonic language ideologies become more cemented in educational institutions Fairclough, ; Wolfram, Coercion and consent are critical to the maintenance of ideologies.
Thus, standardized varieties of English are not inherently legitimate, but become viewed as legitimate when people in dominant discourses recognize them as such. Thus, it is imperative for researchers to investigate all ideologies being enacted and communicated through a variety of social contexts.
This is particularly relevant to this study as it highlights the role of disinformation and misrepresentation in maintaining and reproducing ideologies and therefore existing power relations. Gee states that oppressive ideologies are often built on generalizations and second or even third-hand knowledge, leading to inequitable and incomplete understandings of larger social issues. These misunderstandings, as they are established through tacit knowledge, are easily spread to establish disinformation Gee, Dominant discourses may maintain ideologies through the naturalization of them by framing ideologies as logical or normal regardless of their legitimacy Fairclough, Therefore, ideologies are deeply entrenched within discourses.
As Wolfram explains, even when attention has been brought to hegemonic ideologies, those within a discourse community may continue to disregard claims for reform and overlook the hegemonic assumptions underlying their social practices.
Language acts as both a vessel for and a site of ideology. Bourdieu asserts that an integral part of gaining power occurs through language, particularly through the recognition of legitimacy as a speaker and as a language user. Legitimacy is often attributed to those who 11 participate or are perceived as participating in discourse practices according to social norms of that community. Discourse communities, or groups of individuals with particular sets of norms, practices, and status associated with them, are essential to how individuals view themselves, perform their identities, and access the world around them.
Thus, inequitable social structures and power imbalances may lead to barring individuals from dominant discourse communities on the basis of oppressive ideological standards, as discussed in the findings and discussion of this study.
That is, despite power imbalances, students may resist dominant discourses by asserting their agency and subjectivities. However, this is not to say that students do not have conflicting or sometimes contradictory notions of themselves. In part, identity is established through positioning.
Bucholtz and Hall a refer to this as tactics of intersubjectivity through which identity work is done to establish various social relations, including distinction, adequation, authorization, and illegitmation. Rather, distinction 13 comes into being through social interactions, often to be used a tool of domination. This section will discuss standard language ideologies, native speakerism, and prescriptivism as a starting point as they are some of the most prevalent English language ideologies throughout this study.
However, additional ideologies will be defined as they occur in chapter four, the findings section of this thesis.
World Englishes: A Critical Analysis
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Historical Archaeology & Anthropological Sciences
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Language ideology also referred to as linguistic ideology is a concept used primarily within the fields of anthropology especially linguistic anthropology , sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in their social worlds. When recognized and explored, language ideologies expose connections between the beliefs speakers have about language and the larger social and cultural systems they are a part of, illustrating how these beliefs are informed by and rooted in such systems. By doing so, language ideologies link the implicit as well as explicit assumptions people have about a language or language in general to their social experience and political as well as economic interests.
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Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: June 24, Published: September 1, The revitalization of the mapuche language as a space of ideological struggle: the case of pehuenche communities in Chile. DOI: Download PDF.
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