Digestion And Absorption Of Carbohydrates Pdf

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Digesting or metabolizing carbohydrates breaks foods down into sugars, which are also called saccharides. These molecules begin digesting in the mouth and continue through the body to be used for anything from normal cell functioning to cell growth and repair. There are three main types of carbohydrates.

IV. Carbohydrates, Digestion and Absorption

The primary site of carbohydrate digestion is in the lumen of the small intestine, where pancreatic amylase begins the digestion of starch granules amylose and amylopectin. In some birds, there is some salivary amylase action in the mouth, but not in farm animals.

Dietary simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, do not need to be digested, as they can be absorbed through the intestinal epithelium directly. The end products of starch digestion diffuse into the brush border, where the final digestive processes occur. Disaccharides such as maltase and isomaltase on the intestinal brush border then complete the degradation and are hydrolyzed to their constituent monosaccharides by enzymes on the brush border, and the monosaccharides released are absorbed into the enterocyte.

Sucrose is acted upon by sucrase to yield glucose and fructose for absorption. In young animals kept on milk preweaning , lactose is acted upon by lactase to yield glucose and galactose. Amylase activity is very low in young animals consuming milk and is stimulated by solid food consumption. Monosaccharides are absorbed both by simple diffusion and adenosine triphosphate ATP -dependent active transport. High levels of NSP and glucans in a monogastric diet can cause viscous digesta and can interfere with digestion processes leading to malabsorption.

In poultry, high-NSP-containing diets e. Carbohydrate digestion in ruminant animals is through microbial fermentation in the rumen. Dietary carbohydrates are degraded fermented by rumen microbes bacteria, fungi, protozoa. The purpose of rumen fermentation is to produce energy as ATP for the bacteria to use for protein synthesis and their own growth. VFAs, also known as short-chain fatty acids shown below , are produced as a product of rumen fermentation and are absorbed through the rumen wall and are utilized by the animal as an energy source.

In young ruminants, rumen and the reticulum are not fully developed and are relatively small. This is a reflex, stimulated by sucking. When the animal is weaned, it normally loses this reflex.

Solid food, such as creep feed, passes into the small rumen and fermentation starts. The neonatal ruminant animal has no ruminal bacterial population but from birth, it starts to pick up bacteria from the mother and environment, particularly through contact. Solid food is then fermented forming VFAs, which stimulate the growth and development of the rumen, particularly the growth of the papillae for absorption. The end products of rumen fermentation are microbial cell masses, or microbial protein-synthesized VFA, and gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, and hydrogen sulfide.

The products of fermentation will vary with the relative composition of the rumen microflora. The microbial population also depends on the diet, since this changes the substrates for fermentation and subsequently the products of fermentation. For example, starch is the major dietary constituent in concentrate-fed ruminants e. The rumen of such animals will have higher amylolytic bacteria than cellulolytic bacteria present in the rumen of roughage- and pasture-fed animals.

Factors such as the forage:concentrate ratio, the physical form of the diet ground vs. Molar ratios of VFAs are dependent on the forage:concentrate ratio of the diet. Cellulolytic bacteria tend to produce more acetate, while amylolytic bacteria produce more propionic acid. Typically three major VFA molar ratios are with a roughage diet and with a concentrate-rich diet. Changes in VFA concentration can lead to several disorders of carbohydrate digestion in ruminants. Rumen acidosis occurs when animals are fed high-grain-rich diets or when animals are suddenly changed from pasture- or range-fed to feedlot conditions.

Skip to content This chapter provides an introduction to the different processes that are involved in the digestion or fermentation of carbohydrates in monogastric and ruminant animals. The small intestine is the site of the digestion of carbohydrates in farm animals.

The end product of carbohydrate digestion in monogastric animals is mainly glucose. The end products of digestion in ruminants are volatile fatty acids and some monosaccharides.

All the digested and absorbed monosaccharides and volatile fatty acids enter into the liver. Key Points Very little digestion occurs in the mouth in farm animals. The small intestine is the site of carbohydrate digestion in monogastrics.

Pancreatic amylase acts on alpha 1,4 links, and other disaccharidases and remove disaccharide units. The end product mainly glucose diffuses into the brush-border using ATP-dependent glucose transporters.

Undigested fiber, nonstarch polysaccharides [NSP] in the hindgut can serve as an energy source for hindgut microbes in monogastrics.

Ruminant carbohydrate digestion is very different from monogastrics. First, there is no amylase secreted in the saliva and then most carbs are fermented in the rumen by microbial enzymes.

Carbohydrates are fermented to volatile fatty acids VFAs in the rumen. These include acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. VFAs are absorbed through the rumen wall into the portal vein and are carried to the liver. Ratios of the VFAs change with the type of diet.

Roughage diets favor microbes that produce more acetic acid, whereas concentrate diets favor microbes that produce more propionic acid. Carbohydrate fermentation disorders in ruminants include rumen acidosis grain overload , when cattle are fed high-starch-based cereal or grain-rich diets or when there is a sudden change from pasture to feedlot.

Review Questions List the enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion in monogastric animals. What are the end products of carbohydrate digestion in monogastrics and in ruminants?

What are the major volatile fatty acids VFAs produced by rumen fermentation? What causes rumen acidosis? Feeding too much barley to broiler chickens can cause sticky feces and digestibility problems. In ruminants fed concentrate-rich diets, the major VFA produced in the rumen is?

In ruminants fed roughage-rich diets, the major VFA produced in the rumen is? Fill in the monosaccharides that compose each disaccharide listed below and the enzyme required to break the bond between them.

Previous: III. Carbohydrates, Structures and Types. Next: V. Carbohydrates, Metabolism. Share This Book Share on Twitter.

Nutrition FN 225

Digestion is the chemical breakdown of the ingested food into absorbable molecules. Absorption refers to the movement of nutrients, water and electrolytes from the lumen of the small intestine into the cell, then into the blood. In this article, we will look at the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, protein and lipids. There are three carbohydrate products which are absorbed by the small intestine; glucose , galactose and fructose. Digestion of starch is initiated in the mouth, facilitated by salivary amylase. The majority of carbohydrate digestion occurs in the small intestine.

The primary site of carbohydrate digestion is in the lumen of the small intestine, where pancreatic amylase begins the digestion of starch granules amylose and amylopectin. In some birds, there is some salivary amylase action in the mouth, but not in farm animals. Dietary simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, do not need to be digested, as they can be absorbed through the intestinal epithelium directly. The end products of starch digestion diffuse into the brush border, where the final digestive processes occur. Disaccharides such as maltase and isomaltase on the intestinal brush border then complete the degradation and are hydrolyzed to their constituent monosaccharides by enzymes on the brush border, and the monosaccharides released are absorbed into the enterocyte. Sucrose is acted upon by sucrase to yield glucose and fructose for absorption. In young animals kept on milk preweaning , lactose is acted upon by lactase to yield glucose and galactose.

The mechanical and chemical digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. Chewing, also known as mastication, crumbles the carbohydrate foods into smaller and smaller pieces. The salivary glands in the oral cavity secrete saliva that coats the food particles. Saliva contains the enzyme, salivary amylase. This enzyme breaks the bonds between the monomeric sugar units of disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and starches. The salivary amylase breaks down amylose and amylopectin into smaller chains of glucose , called dextrins and maltose.

DIGESTION & ABSORPTION OF CARBOHYDRATES

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Imagine taking a bite of pizza. It tastes amazing, but it's also full of fuel for your body, much of it in the form of carbohydrates. What types of carbohydrates would you find in that bite? Lactose from the cheese.

Из почты Танкадо Сьюзан знала также, что цепные мутации, обнаруженные Чатрукьяном, безвредны: они являются элементом Цифровой крепости. - Когда я впервые увидел эти цепи, сэр, - говорил Чатрукьян, - я подумал, что фильтры системы Сквозь строй неисправны. Но затем я сделал несколько тестов и обнаружил… - Он остановился, вдруг почувствовав себя не в своей тарелке.  - Я обнаружил, что кто-то обошел систему фильтров вручную. Эти слова были встречены полным молчанием.

INTRODUCTION

Но завтра в восемь утра тоже есть… - Мне нужно узнать, улетела ли этим рейсом моя подруга. Она собиралась купить билет прямо перед вылетом. Женщина нахмурилась: - Извините, сэр. Этим рейсом улетели несколько пассажиров, купивших билет перед вылетом. Но мы не имеем права сообщать информацию личного характера… - Это очень важно, - настаивал Беккер.

Ты должна признать, Сьюзан, что этот черный ход был придуман для того, чтобы ввести мир в заблуждение и преспокойно читать электронную почту. По мне, так поделом Стратмору. - Грег, - сказала Сьюзан, стараясь не показать своего возмущения, - этот черный ход позволял АНБ расшифровывать электронную почту, представляющую угрозу нашей безопасности. - Что ты говоришь? - Хейл невинно вздохнул.  - И в качестве милого побочного развлечения читать переписку простых граждан.

 - Хватаетесь за соломинку. - Может быть, и нет, - сказала Сьюзан.  - Во множестве шифров применяются группы из четырех знаков. Возможно, это и есть ключ. - Вот именно, - простонал Джабба.  - Он над вами издевается. А вы тем временем погибаете.

ПООБЕДАЕМ У АЛЬФРЕДА. В 8 ВЕЧЕРА.

Но и она тоже многим была обязана Стратмору: он стал ее защитником в мире рвущихся к власти мужчин, помогал ей делать карьеру, оберегал ее и, как сам часто шутил, делал ее сны явью. Хотя и ненамеренно, именно Стратмор привел Дэвида Беккера в АНБ в тот памятный день, позвонив ему по телефону. Мысли Сьюзан перенеслись в прошлое, и глаза ее непроизвольно упали на листок бумаги возле клавиатуры с напечатанным на нем шутливым стишком, полученным по факсу: МНЕ ЯВНО НЕ ХВАТАЕТ ЛОСКА, ЗАТО МОЯ ЛЮБОВЬ БЕЗ ВОСКА.

Он бродил по коридорам шифровалки, тушил бесконечные виртуальные пожары и проклинал слабоумие нерадивых невежд. Чатрукьян знал: как только Джабба узнает, что Стратмор обошел фильтры, разразится скандал. Какая разница? - подумал.  - Я должен выполнять свои обязанности.

 - О Боже, - проговорила Сьюзан, сообразив, в чем дело, - Цифровая крепость зашифровала самое. Стратмор невесело улыбнулся: - Наконец ты поняла. Формула Цифровой крепости зашифрована с помощью Цифровой крепости. Танкадо предложил бесценный математический метод, но зашифровал .

 - Коммандер Стратмор отправил кого-то в Испанию с заданием найти ключ. - И что? - воскликнул Джабба.

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    Carbohydrates are hydrophilic and require a series of reactions to digest them to monosaccharides which are absorbed in the small intestine. Carbohydrates.

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