What Democracy Is And Is Not Pdf

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Philippe C. Schmitter

What science for what democracy? The transformations undergone by research and science in the name of the so called "knowledge economy" cover the decisions of scientific policies and the "management" of research, and also the meaning of scientific activities devoted to innovation and even more fundamentally the very structure of the sciences transformed to technosciences. The science that is contributing to capitalist competitiveness and to the current economic crisis is not the same as that which would be able to contribute "to the conception and democratic carrying out of another form of globalization and another European project". However, this is not self-evident, and it needs to be thought about since it is not simply a matter of returning to the science of the 20th century that opened the way to technoscience. Keywords: Science. Contextualized research strategies.


Democracy is an exciting concept,. The increase in the number of states ascribing to democratic practice has signalled a different life for many who now live free from political oppression or authoritarian rule. It is a complex term for many, especially those in newer democracies. It takes a long time coming to grips with its practical meaning. There is a lot of information about democracy.

Terry Lynn Karl is the Gildred Professor of Latin American Studies and. Political Science at Stanford University and Senior Fellow (by courtesy) at the Freeman.


The decisions on who is considered part of the people and how authority is shared among or delegated by the people have changed over time and at different speeds in different countries, but they have included more and more of the inhabitants of all countries. Cornerstones include freedom of assembly and speech , inclusiveness and equality , membership , consent , voting , right to life and minority rights. The notion of democracy has evolved over time considerably, [2] and, generally, the two current types of democracy are direct and representative. In a direct democracy , the people directly deliberate and decide on legislation. In a representative democracy , the people elect representatives to deliberate and decide on legislation, such as in parliamentary or presidential democracy.

What Democracy Is. . . and Is Not

Democratization , or democratisation , is the transition to a more democratic political regime , including substantive political changes moving in a democratic direction. It may be the transition from an authoritarian regime to a full democracy , a transition from an authoritarian political system to a semi-democracy or transition from a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. The outcome may be consolidated as it was for example in the United Kingdom or democratization may face frequent reversals as happened in Chile.

Philippe C. Schmitter & Terry Lynn Karl: “What Democracy is...and is Not”

Linz and Alfred Stepan. Rather than being in decline, democracy is in crisis due to the gap between the democratic ideal and how democracy is actually being practiced. The present crisis of the Euro is a near perfect example of how causal complexity, unanticipated consequences, and decisional uncertainty can have a significant and cumulative impact on regional integration. In theory, this should be the crisis that will drive the EU from economic to political integration.

Democratization , process through which a political regime becomes democratic. The explosive spread of democracy around the world beginning in the midth century radically transformed the international political landscape from one in which democracies were the exception to one in which they were the rule. The increased interest in democratization among academics, policy makers, and activists alike is in large part due to the strengthening of international norms that associate democracy with many important positive outcomes, from respect for human rights to economic prosperity to security.

WHAT DEMOCRACY IS AND IS NOT. Philippe C. Schmitter & Terry Lynn Karl. JT or some time, the word democracy has been circulat ing as a debased.

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Кажется, придется повозиться дольше, чем ожидалось, - это был звонок с мобильника. С мобильника, - мысленно повторил Нуматака.  - Это кое-что. К счастью для японской экономики, у американцев оказался ненасытный аппетит к электронным новинкам.