Noise Pollution And Its Effects Pdf
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Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure to consistent elevated sound levels. Noise from traffic, in particular, is considered by the World Health Organization to be one of the worst environmental stressors for humans, second only to air pollution. Although age-related health effects presbycusis occur naturally with age,  in many countries the cumulative impact of noise is sufficient to impair the hearing of a large fraction of the population over the course of a lifetime.
According to the World Health Organization, sound levels less than 70 dB are not damaging to living organisms, regardless of how long or consistent the exposure is. Exposure for more than 8 hours to constant noise beyond 85 dB may be hazardous.
Image adapted from: cocoparisienne; CC0. Well, maybe. Exposure to prolonged or excessive noise has been shown to cause a range of health problems ranging from stress, poor concentration, productivity losses in the workplace, and communication difficulties and fatigue from lack of sleep, to more serious issues such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, tinnitus and hearing loss. This study collated data from various large-scale epidemiological studies of environmental noise in Western Europe, collected over a year period.
Health effects from noise
Noise health effects are the physical and psychological health consequences of regular exposure to consistent elevated sound levels. Noise from traffic, in particular, is considered by the World Health Organization to be one of the worst environmental stressors for humans, second only to air pollution.
Although age-related health effects presbycusis occur naturally with age,  in many countries the cumulative impact of noise is sufficient to impair the hearing of a large fraction of the population over the course of a lifetime. Adverse cardiovascular effects occur from chronic exposure to noise due to the sympathetic nervous system's inability to habituate.
The sympathetic nervous system maintains lighter stages of sleep when the body is exposed to noise, which does not allow blood pressure to follow the normal rise and fall cycle of an undisturbed circadian rhythm.
Stress from time spent around elevated noise levels has been linked with increased workplace accident rates and aggression and other anti-social behaviors. There are approximately 10, deaths per year as a result of noise in the European Union. Noise-induced hearing loss is a permanent shift in pure-tone thresholds, resulting in sensorineural hearing loss.
The severity of a threshold shift is dependent on duration and severity of noise exposure. Exposure to loud noises, either in a single traumatic experience or over time, can damage the auditory system and result in hearing loss and sometimes tinnitus as well. Traumatic noise exposure can happen at work e. Noise induced hearing loss is sometimes unilateral and typically causes patients to lose hearing around the frequency of the triggering sound trauma.
Tinnitus is an auditory disorder characterized by the perception of a sound ringing, chirping, buzzing, etc. There are two types of tinnitus: subjective and objective. Subjective is the most common and can only be heard "in the head" by the person affected.
Objective tinnitus can be heard from those around the affected person and the audiologist can hear it using a stethoscope. Tinnitus can also be categorised by the way it sounds in one's ear, pulsatile tinnitus  which is caused by the vascular nature of Glomus tumours and non-pulsatile tinnitus which usually sounds like crickets, the sea and bees.
Though the pathophysiology of tinnitus isn't known, noise exposure can be a contributing factor, therefore tinnitus can be associated with hearing loss, generated by the cochlea and central nervous system CNS. High frequency hearing loss causes a high pitched tinnitus and low frequency hearing loss causes a roaring tinnitus. Noise has been associated with important cardiovascular health problems, particularly hypertension.
Traffic noise has several negative effects, including increased risk for coronary artery disease , with night-time exposure to noise possibly more harmful than day-time exposure.
Long-term exposure to noise is correlated to increase in cortisol and angiotensin-II levels which are respectively associated with oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. Traffic noise may also increase the risk of stroke, diabetes, and becoming overweight.
Causal relationships have been discovered between noise and psychological effects such as annoyance, psychiatric disorders, and effects on psychosocial well-being. This was researched in a study where non-professional musicians were found to have loudness addictions more often than non-musician control subjects.
Psychological health effects from noise include depression and anxiety. Individuals who have hearing loss, including noise induced hearing loss, may have their symptoms alleviated with the use of hearing aids. Auditory stimuli can serve as psychological triggers for individuals with post traumatic stress disorder PTSD. More than 1.
The impact of noise on health is potentially a significant problem across the UK given that more than The extent of the problem of noise pollution for public health is reinforced by figures collated by Rockwool from local authority responses to a Freedom of Information Act FOI request.
This research reveals in the period April — UK councils received , complaints about noise pollution from private residences. This resulted in environmental health officers across the UK serving 8, noise abatement notices, or citations under the terms of the Anti-Social Behaviour Scotland Act. Westminster City Council  has received more complaints per head of population than any other district in the UK with 9, grievances about noise, which equates to Eight of the top 10 councils ranked by complaints per 1, residents were in London.
Sudden impulse noises are typically perceived as more bothersome than noise from traffic of equal volume. Other factors that affect the "annoyance level" of sound include beliefs about noise prevention and the importance of the noise source, and annoyance at the cause i.
The U. Specific birth abnormalities included harelip , cleft palate , and defects in the spine. According to Lester W. The fetus is capable of perceiving sounds and responding to them by motor activity and cardiac rate change. Later developmental effects occur as vasoconstriction in the mother reduces blood flow and therefore oxygen and nutrition to the fetus.
Low birth weights and noise were also associated with lower levels of certain hormones in the mother. These hormones are thought to affect fetal growth and to be good indicators of protein production. The difference between the hormone levels of pregnant mothers in noisy versus quiet areas increased as birth approached.
When young children are regularly exposed to levels of noise that interfere with speech, they may develop speech or reading difficulties, because auditory processing functions are compromised. Children continue to develop their speech perception abilities until they reach their teens. Evidence has shown that when children learn in noisier classrooms, they have more difficulties understanding speech than those who learn in quieter settings. In a study conducted by Cornell University in , children exposed to noise in learning environments experienced trouble with word discrimination, as well as various cognitive developmental delays.
High noise levels have also been known to damage the physical health of small children. A hearing protection device HPD is an ear protection device worn in or over the ears while exposed to hazardous noise to help prevent noise-induced hearing loss. HPDs reduce not eliminate the level of the noise entering the ear. HPDs can also protect against other effects of noise exposure such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. Proper hygiene and care of HPDs may reduce chances of outer ear infections.
Earmuff style hearing protection devices are designed to fit over the outer ear, or pinna. Earmuff HPDs typically consist of two ear cups and a head band. Earplugs come in a variety of different subtypes.
Electronic HPDs are available in both earmuff and custom earplug styles. Electronic microphones, circuitry, and receivers perform active noise reduction , also known as noise-cancelling , in which a signal that is degrees out-of-phase of the noise is presented, which in theory cancels the noise.
In an effort to prevent noise-induced hearing loss, many programs and initiative have been created, like the Buy Quiet program, which encourages employers to purchase quieter tools and equipment, and the Safe-In-Sound Award , which recognizes organizations with successful hearing loss prevention strategies. With regard to indoor noise pollution in residences, the U.
Rather, it has provided a list of recommended levels in its Model Community Noise Control Ordinance , which was published in Noise pollution control in residences is not funded by the federal government in part because of the disagreements in establishing causal links between sounds and health risks, since the effect of noise is often psychological and also, because it leaves no singular tangible trace of damage on the human body.
For instance, hearing loss could be attributed to a variety of factors including age, rather than solely due to excessive exposure to noise. While people are often educated on the effects of noise exposure in humans, there are also different noise exposure effects in animals as well.
An example of this would be in dogs, and the noise exposure levels occurring within kennels. Dogs experience this noise exposure whether it be a long stay at an animal shelter, or a weekend stay at a boarding facility. Currently there are no regulations related to the noise exposure for dogs even with such damaging effects related to their health. Health risks dogs are exposed to include ear damage and behavioral changes.
According to OSHA these levels would yield in the use of hearing protection for the workers of those kennels due to the risk of noise induced hearing loss. The anatomical structures of the human and dog ears are very similar, so it is thought that these levels will negatively impact the hearing of canines in kennels.
The ABR can be used to estimate the hearing threshold of dogs, and can be used to show either a temporary threshold shift or permanent threshold shift after being exposed to excessive sound levels. Behavioral effects to excessive noise exposure include hiding, urinating, defecating, panting, pacing, drooling, disregard to commands, trembling, and barking.
All of these behavioral patterns are characteristics that result in a longer stay at the kennels before being adopted. These excessive noise levels are not only harming the dogs physical and psychological state, but the workers' and potential adoptive families' physical and psychological state as well.
The workers' psychological state could affect the care provided to the dogs. These loud noise exposures also have the potential to reduce the amount of time that potential adoptive families spend in the facility. This can result in less dogs being adopted and more time being exposed to excessive sound levels.
To reduce the level of noise exposure poses a little more difficulty because the majority of the noise is coming from the dogs barking , but structural changes can be made to the facilities in order to reduce the noise.
Structural changes could include how many dogs are put in one area, more absorbing material rather than metal cages and cement walls and floors, and possibly in the future use of hearing protection devices HPD for the dogs. All of these structural changes would also benefit the humans involved as well as the use of HPD's ear plugs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Noise-induced hearing loss. Main article: Hearing protection device. Main article: Noise regulation.
Annual Review of Public Health. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Environmental Health Perspectives. Ear and Hearing.
CBS News. Archived from the original on Retrieved University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original PDF on The handbook of hearing and the effects of noise: physiology, psychology, and public health. Boston: Academic Press. Noise" PDF. Natural Resources and the Environment
Noise pollution has become a major environmental problem leading to nuisances and health issues. This paper aims to study and analyse the noise pollution levels in major areas in Ota metropolis. A probability model which is capable of predicting the noise pollution level is also determined. Datasets on the noise pollution level in 41 locations across Ota metropolis were used in this research. The datasets were collected thrice per day; morning, afternoon and evening. Descriptive statistics were performed, and analysis of variance was also conducted using Minitab version Easy fit software was however used to select the appropriate probability model that would best describe the dataset.
recognize the harmful health effects of noise pol- lution. trol and Prevention, noise pollution is “an in- childrenspolicycoalition.org
What is Noise Pollution?
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Noise pollution: how to reduce the impact of an invisible threat?
Noise pollution , unwanted or excessive sound that can have deleterious effects on human health, wildlife, and environmental quality. Noise pollution is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. Sound waves are vibrations of air molecules carried from a noise source to the ear. Sound is typically described in terms of the loudness amplitude and the pitch frequency of the wave. Loudness also called sound pressure level, or SPL is measured in logarithmic units called decibels dB. The normal human ear can detect sounds that range between 0 dB hearing threshold and about dB, with sounds between dB and dB causing pain pain threshold.
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Что ты здесь делаешь? - спросил Хейл, остановившись в дверях и с недоумением глядя на Сьюзан. Скорее всего он надеялся, что никого не застанет в Третьем узле. Сьюзан постаралась сохранить спокойствие. - Сегодня суббота, Грег. Могу задать тебе точно такой же вопрос.
Необходимость убрать пробелы показалась ей странной. Это была мелочь, но все же изъян, отсутствие чистоты - не этого она ожидала от Танкадо, наносящего свой коронный удар. - Тут что-то не так, - наконец сказала. - Не думаю, что это ключ.
Смотрите. На экран выплыла надпись: КЛЮЧ К ШИФРУ-УБИЙЦЕ ПОДТВЕРЖДЕН - Укрепить защитные стены! - приказал Джабба.