Worlding Identity Media And Imagination In A Digital Age Pdf Creator
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- Chapter 1 Manuscript World, Print World, Digital World
- Chapter 1 Manuscript World, Print World, Digital World
- Children’s Storytelling in Virtual Worlds: A Critique
- Chapter 3: Print, Mass Media and Advertising
Chapter 1 Manuscript World, Print World, Digital World
While the importance of the role of storytelling can hardly be overestimated, the impact of digitalization on this role is more ambivalent. In this second book-length publication of the programme Media and Education in the Digital Age — MEDA, the authors take a critical stance towards the alleged emancipative affordances of digital storytelling in education.
The collection is inspired by the effort of making professional educators aware of the risks of the digital turn in educational storytelling but also of the opportunities and the conditions for critical engagements. Based on their research and field experience, fifteen scholars discuss in nine chapters these risks and opportunities, providing ideas, evidence, references and inspiration to educators and researchers.
Download PDF Abstract In this chapter, we offer a critique of the growing use of virtual worlds for children, particularly as tools to teach children the basic elements of storytelling: language, narrative, the creative imagination, and generativity in applying learned skills.
We argue that virtual storytelling is not like other forms of storytelling, particularly for children, who are still developing these abilities. There is evidence that digital storytelling through virtual worlds lacks many of the positive aspects of non-digital storytelling, and may even inhibit the development of imagination in children.
In this chapter, we review the literature on children and virtual worlds, focusing on the importance and development of the creative imagination in children. We discuss the visualization hypothesis — a theory that was developed to explain how television produces a reductive effect on the imagination because it presents the user with ready-made visual images — and generalize it to new media, including virtual worlds.
Unlike ordinary games, virtual worlds are highly immersive, and create the impression that the user has a good deal of control over their interactions with their virtual environment. Indeed, virtual worlds have begun to be used in this manner, even for pre- and primary school-aged children ibid.
In this chapter, we challenge this view of virtual worlds, focusing on the negative effects that virtual worlds can have on the development of the creative imagination in young children, and thus on their ability to learn the complexities of language and narrative — the essentials of storytelling.
We argue that there is a fundamental difference between non-virtual storytelling that seeks to ignite the imagination, and virtual storytelling, which can limit and oppress the development of the imagination in young children. There may be a temptation, therefore, to assume that digital storytelling through virtual worlds can be similarly effective in teaching young children.
While some authors argue to the contrary Miller, —; Lundby, 1—21 , we argue that digital storytelling through virtual worlds not only lacks these positive aspects, especially with respect to the imagination, but may actually suppress them.
Many of the negative effects that virtual worlds have on the development of the imagination are caused precisely by the characteristic that makes their use in education seem attractive: their degree of immersion, which is a heightened sense of interactivity between the user and the virtual environment. There are therefore possible avenues for testing the level of immersion that a virtual world engenders, and thereupon to also test for its effects upon the user.
We posit that virtual worlds can harm the normal development of imagination in children by the fact that it displaces true make-believe play, while pretending to provide it. Thus, storytelling through virtual worlds is in direct conflict with the main goals of storytelling itself. Next, we review the literature on the development of imagination in children and the empirical research concerning the impact of artificial media on this development.
A virtual world is an artificial environment created by computer software that enables users to interact with other users and with the software itself using self-representational figures called avatars Hew and Cheung, Communication can be performed through text, graphics, avatar movements, gestures and sounds Wadley and Benda, The user logs onto the internet to a server hosting the software creating the virtual world.
This software introduces the user to perceptive stimuli and the user can manipulate objects in the presented environment, thereby experiencing a certain degree of virtual presence. These virtual worlds can look similar to the real world or to a fantasy world — a world in which the rules of nature are different than the rules of the real world and the characters in it are not known in reality Hunter, To put that number in perspective: 5.
McGonigal McGonigal concludes that we have therefore spent as much time playing World of Warcraft WoW as we have spent evolving as a species ibid. Virtual worlds, as a result of their high degree of immersion, are often very good at drawing players in for long periods of time, and this is an important source of the revenue they are able to generate.
Research suggests that children are using electronic media at younger ages Rideout et al. There are over virtual worlds designed and targeted specifically to children Smolen, ; Kzero, According to some estimates, virtual worlds garnered over one billion users in , roughly half of whom were under fifteen years old, with million users being between the ages of 5 and 11 years old Watters, One popular virtual world for children is Webkinz.
Dellinger-Pate and Conforti describe Webkinz as an all-encompassing experience, stating that. It is all of them. Dellinger-Pate and Conforti However, most of the major brands in the market are based around a mix of social interaction and casual game-play. One classic example is Club Penguin. In Club Penguin , children sign up as registered users and take on the form of penguin avatars.
Chat is moderated to ensure that there is no kind of anti-social behavior. Registered users of Club Penguin, typically aged 6—12 with a slight skew towards girls, can get a basic entertainment experience for free. This indicates strong growth, but perhaps more important is the number of children who choose to pay for premium access. Two key differences that separate virtual worlds from other video games are that virtual worlds are both persistent and dynamic Lastowka and Hunter, 5—6.
This means that even when the player is not in the virtual world, the virtual environment continues to exist and change over time Rogers ; Castronova, Dellinger-Pate and Conforti illustrate the potential harmful influence on children through the following story:. When her son was finally able to log on he became instantly panicked and cried uncontrollably over the fear that his pet was dying.
He saw that his beloved avatar was very ill and in the hospital due to malnutrition. The mother knew the pet was, indeed, not going to die; the website makes that clear to parents in its introduction. Yet her son was distraught over having neglected his poor pet during the Christmas season. Ibid: He reacts normally to an abnormal environment.
One broad-based review of the literature showed that virtual worlds can have a positive impact in creating communicative spaces for remote users, as well as in assisting experiential skills learning, although this study focused on older children and adult learners Hew and Cheung, 45— Others disagree, citing evidence of the negative effects of virtual worlds on child development.
Many of these critiques point to the narratives embedded in the virtual worlds themselves and demonstrate their harmful effects on children. Similarly, Hannaford 17 found that children engaged imaginatively with one another and the virtual environment, and that they took the narratives they learned there back with them into the outside world.
However, the problems go deeper than the narrative content and are often embedded in the structure of the game itself. There is no true community in this playground. Respecting copyright and other corporate rules are embedded in the structure of the game itself ibid. Even more invisible are the ways in which children are co-opted into performing forms of immaterial labor, such as data mining and market research, but also less tangible forms of labor ibid.
After all, it is the participation of the children themselves in the game that actually constructs the virtual environment, and it is their interactions with and emotional connection to the game that lend it its meaning, its cultural value and, ultimately, its immense monetary value as well ibid. Grimes b: concludes that virtual worlds provide very limited opportunities for children to exercise their imagination in make-believe play, since adults ultimately shape and impose an idealized play environment on the child.
The essence of imagination lies in its generativity, in the fact that through our imagination we can conjure up experiences and representations that are wholly novel to our lived experiences. Despite its importance, it remains intangible and difficult to define. Just as no other species can speak, no other species can imagine or invent. Despite this ambivalence, there have been numerous attempts to define and classify the imagination, none of which have yet received widespread consensus.
One can imagine, for example, a bird turning into a snake while flying over a lake without ever having seen such a transformation actually taking place. One can produce novel representations in the mind by generatively combining past perceived representations. Other authors have defined the imagination in the context of the human spirit.
The imagination bridges the time from the present to the future. Ulanov and Ulanov point out that there is no life of the spirit without imagination. In our spiritual lives, the imagination enables paths that cannot be traveled in any other way, and its absence detaches us from the unconscious and the spirit.
A more prosaic definition of the imagination claims that imagination is an activity of the human brain, operating much like memory or logic or any other cognitive process Misson, In this view, there is nothing mystical about the imagination: it is simply working on the material present in the brain Feldman et al.
The critical character of the imagination lies in its generative and transformative abilities, to take existing ingredients and bring them together to generate something novel.
It is perhaps for this reason that imagination is critical to learning. Generally, imagination has not been studied as a single concept. This chapter will not deal with daydreaming, being outside the scope of this discussion, but it will discuss below imaginative play, the creative imagination, and the negative effects of media on the imagination as expressed in dreams.
Virtual worlds differ in many ways from authentic imaginary experiences, and these differences may actually impede the development of imagination in young children. As with the tale of the child whose Webkinz pet fell ill from his disuse of the game, virtual worlds can mimic the last three characteristics.
However, it is on the first characteristic that virtual worlds fall short: the child has not imagined the world, and is not in control. The child may, therefore, have significant difficulties distinguishing the virtual world from the real one.
Others contend that the development of the imagination is critical not only to our individual development but also to our collective development.
The consequences of losing or not developing our imaginative capacities can have serious and as yet unforeseen repercussions and, as Jung warns us, our collective accomplishments can be turned back. It is also a key part of what makes us human. It is originally derived from the basic senses, works on the material that is present in the brain and bridges the gap between the self and the object of desire, as well as the time from the present to the future.
The development of the imagination also appears necessary in order to be able to distinguish between the imagined and the real. In children, the imagination develops and expresses in imaginative play and creative imagination. The emphasis is on the novel reshaping of already-familiar images and experiences.
These skills are all essential for both understanding and creating stories. Because a virtual world is an even more fully-immersive experience for the child than a television show, even more of the images and concepts that child users receive are imposed upon them, thus increasing the ill effects of the medium. Below, we describe good reasons why we think this is the case, and why further research needs to be done in this area.
These two steps are essential. First, imaginative playing will enable creativity, and only in creativity will we discover ourselves. Play is essential for the imagination, but it is pretend play that most deeply express and develops our creativity and imagination. When a child jumps over a stream for the fun of jumping, she is engaging in a practice game. Symbolic games imply representation of an absent object, since there is a comparison between a given and an imagined element.
For example, a child pushing a box and imagining it is a car. It is the symbolic, or pretend, games that are most important in the context of the development of imagination.
Chapter 1 Manuscript World, Print World, Digital World
While the importance of the role of storytelling can hardly be overestimated, the impact of digitalization on this role is more ambivalent. In this second book-length publication of the programme Media and Education in the Digital Age — MEDA, the authors take a critical stance towards the alleged emancipative affordances of digital storytelling in education. The collection is inspired by the effort of making professional educators aware of the risks of the digital turn in educational storytelling but also of the opportunities and the conditions for critical engagements. Based on their research and field experience, fifteen scholars discuss in nine chapters these risks and opportunities, providing ideas, evidence, references and inspiration to educators and researchers. Download PDF Abstract In this chapter, we offer a critique of the growing use of virtual worlds for children, particularly as tools to teach children the basic elements of storytelling: language, narrative, the creative imagination, and generativity in applying learned skills. We argue that virtual storytelling is not like other forms of storytelling, particularly for children, who are still developing these abilities.
Cultural Heritage in a Changing World pp Cite as. The analysis presents some reflections on the changes produced by the use of digital technologies in contemporary Western societies. The scope is to understand the occurrences of the recent past, from the second half of the s, and what is happening in social and individual experiences today. To devise a future, to decide how, when and what to offer in order to transmit to young people the fields of knowledge and skills that will be of use for managing their future successfully in a changing Europe. The prevailing theoretical approach is from an anthropological cultural point of view with interdisciplinary encounters. The chapter is divided into three parts: the first two are general reflections on the role of digital technologies in the past and present and focus on questions, expectations, characteristics that have interested scholars over time. The aim of this article is to understand the cultural changes brought about by the rapid diffusion of the new communications technology in the globalized context of the West.
PDF | The subject of interest in this paper relates to the expression of Digital Natives is presented, under the assumption that the digital media will The latest achievement of the digital age is the World Wide Web The creator can o er his work to the public for evaluation very fast, almost immediately.
Children’s Storytelling in Virtual Worlds: A Critique
Clementine Hall Thursday, 14 November The issues that you will be addressing in these days are of immense importance. Many of you have been dealing with these issues with determination and farsightedness for some time. In effect, this complex problem calls for cooperation on the part of all: experts in science and technology, entrepreneurs and economists, legislators, politicians and security agents, educators and psychologists, and, not least, religious and moral leaders cf. I am pleased to know that you have continued on this path, along with new initiatives, including particularly the interreligious conference held in Abu Dhabi a year ago, taken up by our meeting today.
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Associate Profesor. Faculty of Social and Human Sciences.
Chapter 3: Print, Mass Media and Advertising
We use all kinds of terms to talk about media. It will be useful to clarify them. It will be especially important to distinguish between mass communication and mass media, and to attempt a working definition of culture. Note that adjective: mass. Here is a horrible definition of mass from an online dictionary: of, relating to, characteristic of, directed at, or attended by a large number of people.
New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computers for redistribution. Some examples of new media are computer animations , computer games , human-computer interfaces , interactive computer installations , websites , and virtual worlds. New media are often contrasted to " old media ", such as television, radio, and print media, although scholars in communication and media studies have criticized inflexible distinctions based on oldness and novelty. Wikipedia , an online encyclopedia , is an example of new media, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers. Social media or social networking services , such as Facebook and Twitter , are additional examples of new media in which most users are also participants.
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80 International Journal of Learning and Media / Volume 1 / Number 2. Introduction erating legally in the digital world—and why doing so. is important. Beyond a balance between the private interests of creators. and the public tionally a key activity in the socialization and identity. development of.
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