Lower Limb Muscles Origin And Insertion Pdf

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This is a table of skeletal muscles of the human anatomy. There are around skeletal muscles [1] within the typical human body.

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Table of Lower Limb Muscles

A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes. A comprehensive collection of OSCE guides to common clinical procedures, including step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes.

A collection of communication skills guides, for common OSCE scenarios, including history taking and information giving. A collection of data interpretation guides to help you learn how to interpret various laboratory and radiology investigations. A comprehensive collection of medical revision notes that cover a broad range of clinical topics. A collection of anatomy notes covering the key anatomy concepts that medical students need to learn.

Each clinical case scenario allows you to work through history taking, investigations, diagnosis and management. A collection of free medical student quizzes to put your medical and surgical knowledge to the test! Table of Contents. The leg is defined anatomically as the portion of the lower limb from the knee joint to the ankle joint.

The muscles of the leg are divided into three compartments : the anterior compartment, the posterior compartment and the lateral compartment. In total, there are 13 separate muscles across these three compartments.

The muscles in the anterior compartment act to dorsiflex and invert the foot, as well as extend the toes. Muscles in the posterior compartment plantarflex the foot, flex the toes and invert the foot. Lateral compartment muscles of the leg act to evert the foot. These two groups are divided by a layer of deep fascia called the transverse intermuscular septum.

As a group these muscles act to plantarflex and invert the foot, as well as flexing the toes. All muscles within the posterior compartment are innervated by the tibial nerve. The three muscles of the superficial group are gastrocnemius , soleus and plantaris.

These strong powerful muscles are able to propel the body forward when moving and elevate it upwards on to the toes. All three of the superficial muscles insert into the calcaneus heel via the calcaneal tendon , the most powerful tendon in the body.

Gastrocnemius is the most superficial muscle within the posterior compartment and originates from its two heads , the medial and lateral head. These heads form the borders of the lower section of the popliteal fossa, an important anatomical landmark for neurovascular structures. The heads of gastrocnemius combine to form the muscle belly of the characteristic calf shape and distally contribute to the formation of the calcaneal tendon.

Soleus is a large flat muscle located underneath gastrocnemius that received its name for its resemblance to a Sole, a type of flatfish. Soleus has three origin points, one of which being the tendinous arch of soleus which spans between the tibia and fibula. This tendinous arch is where the popliteal artery exits the popliteal fossa to enter the deep region of the posterior compartment of the leg, immediately dividing into the anterior tibial and posterior tibial arteries.

Origin : soleal line and medial border of tibia; posterior fibular head; and tendinous arch between tibial and fibular attachments. Blood supply : posterior tibial, fibular and sural arteries branches from the popliteal artery. Plantaris is a small muscle with a short belly and a long tendon which joins the calcaneal tendon distally. Its involvement in foot plantarflexion or knee flexion is insignificant and as a result, the plantaris tendon can be removed for grafting e.

Origin : inferior part of the lateral supracondylar line of femur and oblique popliteal ligament of knee. There are four muscles which make up the deep group of the posterior compartment: popliteus , flexor digitorum longus , flexor hallucis longus and posterior tibialis.

Popliteus is the only muscle to act on the knee whereas the others act on the foot and toes. Popliteus is a flat triangular-shaped muscle that forms part of the floor of the popliteal fossa. The main function of popliteus is to unlock the knee.

It does this by rotating the femur laterally 5 o to release the knee from its locked position allowing flexion to occur. Action : unlocks the knee joint by laterally rotating the femur on the fixed tibia as well as stabilising the knee joint. Located between flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior is the deepest muscle in the posterior compartment.

Whilst this muscle is involved with inversion and plantarflexion of the foot, its main function is to support the medial arch of the foot. To test tibialis posterior, invert the foot against resistance in slight plantarflexion. If normal, the tendon should be visible and can be palpated posterior to the medial malleolus. Action : inversion and plantarflexion of the foot. Supports the medial arch of the foot during walking. Flexor digitorum longus begins on the medial side of the posterior compartment and descends down the leg where its tendon enters the sole of foot to insert on the distal phalanges of the lateral four toes.

The muscle is involved with gripping the ground during walking by flexing the lateral four toes. It originates on the lateral side of the posterior compartment and its tendon curves under the talus bone in the foot to insert into the distal phalanx of the great toe. There is immediate pain in the calf and sudden dorsiflexion of the previously plantarflexed foot. Due to shortening of gastrocnemius and soleus a lump can be felt in the calf and in a completely ruptured tendon, a gap may be palpable just proximal to the calcaneal attachment.

A history of calcaneal tendonitis and use of quinolone antibiotics e. The patient lies prone on the examination couch with their feet hanging over the edge and the examiner squeezes the calf muscles and whilst observing for plantarflexion of the foot. The absence of plantarflexion a normal response is indicative of Achilles tendon rupture. Depending on the patient, treatment can be surgical or non-surgical.

In older or non-athletic people, non-surgical management is often adequate but those with an active lifestyle may require surgical intervention. There are only two muscles in the lateral compartment of the leg: fibularis longus and fibularis brevis. You may also see these muscles referred to as peroneal longus and peroneal brevis.

The same occurs for the common fibular nerve or common peroneal nerve. Both muscles evert the foot and are innervated by a branch of the common fibular nerve, the superficial fibular nerve. Fibularis longus is the longer and more superficial of the two muscles in the lateral compartment, originating from the upper lateral surface and head of the fibula.

Its tendon passes posterior to the lateral malleolus and enters the lateral side of the foot crossing under the sole of the foot, attaching to the medial side of the cuneiform and base of the first metatarsal.

Together with tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior, they act as a stirrup to support the arches of the foot. Action : eversion and plantarflexion of the foot. Provides support to the lateral and transverse arches of the foot. It lies deep to fibularis longus and originates from the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the fibular shaft. Its tendon passes behind the lateral malleolus with the fibularis longus tendon to insert on to a tubercle at the base of the fifth metatarsal.

In the anterior compartment of the leg, there are four muscles : tibialis anterior , extensor hallucis longus , extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius. Some texts may consider extensor digitorum longus and fibularis tertius to be the same muscle and therefore only refer to three muscles in the anterior compartment.

However, in this article, we are classing them as separate muscles. Together the muscles in this compartment act to dorsiflex and invert the foot, and extend the toes. All are innervated by the deep fibular nerve , a branch of the common fibular nerve. Compartment syndrome often occurs due to muscle swelling.

The swelling muscle is confined in a fixed volume compartment and this causes an increase in pressure within the compartment. Over time the pressure in the compartment surpasses the arterial pressure , resulting in loss of arterial blood supply and secondary tissue ischaemia. Compartment syndrome can be acute or chronic, but it is most commonly due to trauma such as a bone fracture or crush injury. Pain and paraesthesia are early symptoms and should prompt initiation of treatment.

If there are reduced or absent pulses, then this suggests severe ischaemic damage. Immediate treatment involves removing constrictive dressings and raising the limb above the level of the heart. Fasciotomy of the muscle compartments releases pressure and should be performed as soon as possible to minimise the risk of irreversible ischaemia. Tibialis anterior TA is the most superficial and medial muscle in the anterior compartment of the leg.

It is the most powerful dorsiflexor of the foot and during walking provides support for the medial arch of the foot. The function of TA can be assessed by asking a patient to dorsiflex their foot against resistance or stand on their heels.

The tendon of a healthy TA should be clearly visible during these movements. Action : dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot as well as supporting the medial arch of the foot. Extensor hallucis longus EHL is located deeply between tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus.

It begins at the middle of half of the fibula and interosseous membrane travelling down anteriorly to insert at the distal phalanx of the great toe. Origin : medial surface of fibula and adjacent surface of the interosseous membrane.

The most lateral of the muscles in the anterior compartment, extensor digitorum longus EDL originates mainly from the medial surface of the fibula but also from the lateral tibial condyle. The muscle forms its tendon in the lower third of the leg which then later divides into four tendons inserting into the lateral four toes.

Proximally fibularis tertius FT is continuous with EDL and as a result, some texts consider it to be part of the EDL rather than a muscle in its own right. However, distally the tendon of FT is separate from EDL and inserts into the fifth metatarsal as shown in the diagram of the lateral foot below.

FT is not always present in all humans. Foot drop occurs as a result of injury to the common fibular nerve. The common fibular nerve is susceptible to injury because of its superficial location when it passes around the neck of the fibula.

Potential mechanisms of injury include direct trauma, secondary to a knee injury such as a dislocation, or as a result of a proximal fibular fracture. Damage to the common fibular nerve results in paralysis of all muscles in the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg the muscles which dorsiflex and evert the foot. Consequently, an inability to dorsiflex the foot results in foot drop. People with injury to the common fibular nerve may also experience loss of sensation on the anterolateral aspect of the leg and dorsum of the foot.

Clinical Examination. Heart Murmurs.

Muscles of the Lower Limb

The muscles that move the thigh have their origins on some part of the pelvic girdle and their insertions on the femur. The largest muscle mass belongs to the posterior group, the gluteal muscles, which, as a group, adduct the thigh. The iliopsoas, an anterior muscle, flexes the thigh. The muscles in the medial compartment adduct the thigh. The illustration below shows some of the muscles of the lower extremity.

Iliotibial tract which inserts lateral Hip flexion and medial rotation, tenses Tensor Fascia latae Iliac crest, lateral ASIS Superior gluteal L4-S1 tibial condyle fascia lata which supports knee laterally. Ischopubic rami, obturator membrane, medial margins of Nerve to obturator internus L5, Obturator internus Medial side of Greater trochanter LR hip obturator foramen, anterolateral S1 wall of true pelvis. Quadrate tubercle on the Nerve to quadratus femoris L5- Quadratus Femoris Lateral border of Ischial tuberosity intertorchanteric crest of the LR hip S1 , special nerve from sacral proximal femur plexus. Superior iliac fossa, wing ala of Lesser trochanter of femur tendon Iliacus sacrum, anterior sacroiliac Hip flexion Femoral nerve L2-L4 fused with that of psoas major ligaments,. Anterior, inferior to greater Vastus Lateralis Tibial tuberosity via patella ligament Knee extension Femoral L2-L4 trochanter and linea aspera. Inferior ramus of pubis add head Linear aspera, adductor tubercle Adduction of thigh depending on hip Adductor Magnus and ischial tuberosity hamstring Obturator and sciatic femur position head. Adduct, medially, flex the thigh Pectineus Inferior ramus of pubis Linea aspera of femur Femoral depending on hip position.

By the end of this section, you will be able to identify the following muscles and give their origins, insertions, actions and innervations:. The skeletal muscles are divided into axial muscles of the trunk and head and appendicular muscles of the arms and legs categories. This system reflects the bones of the skeleton system, which are also arranged in this manner. Some of the axial muscles may seem to blur the boundaries because they cross over to the appendicular skeleton. The first grouping of the axial muscles you will review includes the muscles of the head and neck, then you will review the muscles of the vertebral column, and finally you will review the oblique and rectus muscles. The muscles of facial expression originate from the surface of the skull or the fascia connective tissue of the face. The insertions of these muscles have fibers intertwined with connective tissue and the dermis of the skin.

Table of Lower Limb Muscles

У подножия ступенек Беккер споткнулся и, потеряв равновесие, неуправляемо заскользил по отполированному камню. Острая боль пронзила вес его тело, когда он приземлился на бок, но мгновение спустя он уже был на ногах и, скрываемый занавешенным входом, сбежал вниз по деревянным ступенькам. Превозмогая боль, он бежал через гардеробную. У алтаря кто-то кричал, за спиной у него слышались тяжелые шаги.

Стратмор задумался. - Должно быть, где-то замыкание. Желтый сигнал тревоги вспыхнул над шифровалкой, и свет, пульсируя, прерывистыми пятнами упал налицо коммандера. - Может, отключить его самим? - предложила Сьюзан.

Lower Limb: Muscle Table + Pictures

Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери. Сьюзан неохотно кивнула. План неплохой. Когда служба безопасности извлечет Хейла из подсобного помещения и обвинит в убийстве Чатрукьяна, он скорее всего попытается шантажировать их обнародованием информации о Цифровой крепости. Но все доказательства к этому моменту будут уничтожены, и Стратмор сможет сказать, что не знает, о чем речь.

Но запах шел не оттуда, его источник находился где-то поблизости. Сьюзан посмотрела на решетчатую дверь, ведущую в кухню, и в тот же миг поняла, что означает этот запах. Запах одеколона и пота. Она инстинктивно отпрянула назад, застигнутая врасплох тем, что увидела. Из-за решетчатой двери кухни на нее смотрели. И в тот же миг ей открылась ужасающая правда: Грег Хейл вовсе не заперт внизу - он здесь, в Третьем узле.

Халохот услышал, как где-то ниже тело Беккера упало на каменные ступеньки, и бросился вниз, сжимая в руке пистолет. В поле его зрения попало окно. Здесь. Халохот приблизился к внешней стене и стал целиться. Ноги Беккера скрылись из виду за поворотом, и Халохот выстрелил, но тут же понял, что выстрел пришелся в пустоту.

ORIGIN: Iliac fossa (ilium); crest of os coxa; ala (sacrum). INSERTION: lesser trochanter (femur). INNERVATION: femoral nerve. ACTION.

Lower Limb: Muscle Table + Pictures

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В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ практически ничего не складировалось, взломанные шифры немедленно отсылались в главный банк данных АНБ, чтобы… Сьюзан стало плохо. Моментально прозрев и прижав руку ко рту, она вскрикнула: - Главный банк данных. Стратмор, глядя в темноту, произнес бесцветным голосом, видимо, уже все поняв: - Да, Сьюзан. Главный банк данных… Сьюзан отстраненно кивнула. Танкадо использовал ТРАНСТЕКСТ, чтобы запустить вирус в главный банк данных.

Наверное, эта женщина - ангел. Она прилетела за. Ангел заговорил: - Дэвид, я люблю. Внезапно он все понял. Сьюзан на экране тянулась к нему, плача и смеясь, захлестнутая волной эмоций. Вот она вытерла слезы.

 - Он прикинул в уме, сколько в этой пачке в пересчете на доллары.  - Да тут несколько тысяч долларов. - Я действую по инструкции, сэр.  - Пилот повернулся и скрылся в кабине. Дверца за ним захлопнулась. Беккер спустился вниз, постоял, глядя на самолет, потом опустил глаза на пачку денег в руке. Постояв еще некоторое время в нерешительности, он сунул конверт во внутренний карман пиджака и зашагал по летному полю.

Сьюзан, не слушая его, повернулась к Соши. - Сколько там этих сироток? - спросила .

 Кто со мной говорит? - крикнул Стратмор, стараясь перекрыть шум. - Нуматака! - огрызнулся сердитый голос.  - Вы обещали мне ключ. Стратмор не остановился.

 Да, мистер Клушар, конечно, понимаю. Это цена, которую приходится платить за известность. - Действительно.  - Клушар вздохнул с видом мученика, вынужденного терпеть всякий сброд.  - Вы когда-нибудь видели что-либо более ужасное, чем это место? - Он обвел глазами палату.

Бранденбургский концерт, - подумал Беккер.  - Номер четыре. Они со Сьюзан слушали этот концерт в прошлом году в университете в исполнении оркестра Академии Святого Мартина. Ему вдруг страшно захотелось увидеть ее - сейчас .

На черном поле светилось небольшое желтое окно, на котором виднелись две строчки: ВРЕМЯ ПОИСКА: 15:09:33 ИСКОМЫЙ ШИФР: Сьюзан недоуменно смотрела на экран. Получалось, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ трудится над шифром больше пятнадцати часов. Она хорошо знала, что процессор перебирает тридцать миллионов паролей в секунду - сто миллиардов в час. Если ТРАНСТЕКСТ до сих пор не дал ответа, значит, пароль насчитывает не менее десяти миллиардов знаков.

 - Какой же может быть ответ. - Нам необходимо число, - напомнил Джабба.  - Шифр-убийца имеет цифровую структуру. - Тихо, - потребовал Фонтейн и повернулся к Сьюзан.  - Мисс Флетчер, вы проделали уже немалую часть пути.

 Элементы! - повторил Беккер.  - Периодическая таблица. Химические элементы. Видел ли кто-нибудь из вас фильм Толстый и тонкий о Манхэттенском проекте.

 Я хочу сохранить это в тайне, - сказала .

Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер. Молчание. Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла. Подойдя поближе, она увидела, что в руке Хейла зажат какой-то предмет, посверкивавший в свете мониторов.

Беккер кивнул, стараясь не смотреть на серебряную дужку в верхней губе парня. - Табу Иуда, - произнес тот как ни в чем не бывало. Беккер посмотрел на него с недоумением. Панк сплюнул в проход, явно раздраженный невежеством собеседника.

 - Увы, в мире полно наивных людей, которые не могут представить себе ужасы, которые нас ждут, если мы будем сидеть сложа руки. Я искренне верю, что только мы можем спасти этих людей от их собственного невежества. Сьюзан не совсем понимала, к чему он клонит. Коммандер устало опустил глаза, затем поднял их вновь. - Сьюзан, выслушай меня, - сказал он, нежно ей улыбнувшись.

Bones of the Lower Limb


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  2. Christin M. 11.05.2021 at 06:50

    A comprehensive collection of clinical examination OSCE guides that include step-by-step images of key steps, video demonstrations and PDF mark schemes.