Dos And Windows Operating System Pdf

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dos and windows operating system pdf

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An operating system is the fundamental basis of all other application programs. Operating system is an intermediary between the users and the hardware.

An Operating System OS is a software that acts as an interface between computer hardware components and the user.

IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code IO.

Operating Systems

IBM again approached Bill Gates. Gates in turn approached Seattle Computer Products. DOS was structured such that there was a separation between the system specific device driver code IO. In the mids Microsoft developed a multitasking version of DOS. This version of DOS supports preemptive multitasking, shared memory, device helper services and New Executable "NE" format executables. Gordon Letwin wrote in that "DOS was, when we first wrote it, a one-time throw-away product intended to keep IBM happy so that they'd buy our languages".

Jim Hall then posted a manifesto proposing the development of an open-source replacement. Within a few weeks, other programmers including Pat Villani and Tim Norman joined the project. COM command line interpreter shell , and core utilities were created by pooling code they had written or found available.

In , Windows 95 was bundled as a standalone operating system that did not require a separate DOS license. DOS's structure of accessing hardware directly makes it ideal for use in embedded devices. King's Quest , Doom on modern operating systems. Machine-dependent versions of MS-DOS were produced for many non-IBM-compatible x86 -based machines, with variations from relabelling of the Microsoft distribution under the manufacturer's name, to versions specifically designed to work with non-IBM-PC-compatible hardware.

While these systems loosely resembled the DOS architecture, applications were not binary compatible due to the incompatible instruction sets of these non-xCPUs. However, applications written in high-level languages could be ported easily.

DOS is a single-user, single-tasking operating system with basic kernel functions that are non-reentrant : only one program at a time can use them, and DOS itself has no functionality to allow more than one program to execute at a time. DOS provides the ability for shell scripting via batch files with the filename extension. Each line of a batch file is interpreted as a program to run.

Batch files can also make use of internal commands, such as GOTO and conditional statements. The operating system offers an application programming interface that allows development of character-based applications, but not for accessing most of the hardware , such as graphics cards , printers , or mice. This required programmers to access the hardware directly, usually resulting in each application having its own set of device drivers for each hardware peripheral.

Hardware manufacturers would release specifications to ensure device drivers for popular applications were available. The DOS system files loaded by the boot sector must be contiguous and be the first two directory entries. It is, however, possible to replace the shell at will, a method that can be used to start the execution of dedicated applications faster.

COM instead of IO. SYS instead. SYS were combined into a single file IO. COM automatically. DOS uses a filesystem which supports 8. Starting with DOS 2 hierarchical directories are supported.

Each directory name is also 8. This was originally FAT12 which supported up to clusters per drive. DOS 3. Starting with DOS 3. In DOS, drives are referred to by identifying letters. Standard practice is to reserve "A" and "B" for floppy drives. On systems with only one floppy drive DOS assigns both letters to the drive, prompting the user to swap disks as programs alternate access between them. This facilitates copying from floppy to floppy or having a program run from one floppy while accessing its data on another.

Hard drives were originally assigned the letters "C" and "D". DOS could only support one active partition per drive. As support for more hard drives became available, this developed into first assigning a drive letter to each drive's active primary partition , then making a second pass over the drives to allocate letters to logical drives in the extended partition , then a third pass to give any other non-active primary partitions their names where such additional partitions existed and contained a DOS-supported file system.

Letter assignments usually occur in the order the drivers are loaded, but the drivers can instruct DOS to assign a different letter; drivers for network drives, for example, typically assign letters nearer the end of the alphabet.

An example is the addition of a new hard drive having a primary partition where a pre-existing hard drive contains logical drives in extended partitions; the new drive will be assigned a letter that was previously assigned to one of the extended partition logical drives.

Moreover, even adding a new hard drive having only logical drives in an extended partition would still disrupt the letters of RAM disks and optical drives.

This problem persisted through Microsoft's DOS-based 9x versions of Windows until they were replaced by versions based on the NT line, which preserves the letters of existing drives until the user changes them. The assignment of this drive would then be changed in a batch job whenever the application starts. There are reserved device names in DOS that cannot be used as filenames regardless of extension as they are occupied by built-in character devices.

These restrictions also affect several Windows versions, in some cases causing crashes and security vulnerabilities.

Filenames ended with a colon : such as NUL: conventionally indicate device names, but the colon is not actually a part of the name of the built-in device drivers. Colons are not necessary to be typed in some cases, for example:. It is still possible to create files or directories using these reserved device names, such as through direct editing of directory data structures in disk sectors.

Such naming, such as starting a file name with a space, has sometimes been used by viruses or hacking programs to obscure files from users who do not know how to access these locations. Due to PC architecture only a maximum of KB known as conventional memory is available as the upper KB is reserved. Specifications were developed to allow access to additional memory. The first was the Expanded Memory Specification EMS which originally allowed memory on an add-on card to be accessed via a 64 KB page frame in the reserved upper memory area.

They can access all of the drives and services, and can even use the host's clipboard services. In Windows 3. The DOS graphics mode, both character and graphic, can be captured and run in the window.

Although there is a default configuration config. It is possible to load drivers in these files to access the host system, although these are typically third-party. The modifications allow Windows 3. The DOS booted this way has full access to the system, but provides its own drivers for hardware. DOS systems use a command-line interface. A program is started by entering its filename at the command prompt. DOS systems include utility programs and provide internal commands that don't correspond to programs.

Eventually, the manufacturers of major DOS systems began to include their own environment managers. DOS is not a multitasking operating system. Borland Sidekick , a popup personal information manager PIM , also used this technique. Terminate and Stay Resident programs were also used to provide additional features not available by default. Some TSRs could even perform a rudimentary form of task switching. For example, the shareware program Back and Forth [46] had a hotkey to save the state of the currently-running program to disk, load another program, and switch to it, hence it was possible to switch "back and forth" between programs, albeit slowly due to the disk access required.

Back and Forth could not enable background processing however; that needed DESQview on at least a From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of closely related PC-compatible operating systems. This article is about a family of operating systems. For the concept, see Disk Operating System.

For the type of cyberattack, see DoS. For other uses, see DOS disambiguation. Main article: History of Microsoft Windows. Main article: Drive letter assignment. Main article: Device file.

Further information: Parallel port and Serial port. Main article: DOS memory management. See also: Virtual DOS machine. Main article: Terminate and Stay Resident. Further information: Category:DOS software. DOS the Easy Way. EasyWay Downloadable Books.

The Scoble Show Interview. Interviewed by Scoble, Robert. Archived from the original on Just Say No to Microsoft. No Starch Press. Retrieved InfoWorld : G4M lab.

BYTE : 6. BYTE : Over Software".

What is DOS?

Approximately 90 percent of PCs run some version of Windows. Based in part on licensed concepts that Apple Inc. Subsequent versions introduced greater functionality, including native Windows File Manager, Program Manager, and Print Manager programs, and a more dynamic interface. Microsoft also developed specialized Windows packages, including the networkable Windows for Workgroups and the high-powered Windows NT, aimed at businesses. With the release of Windows XP , Microsoft united its various Windows packages under a single banner, offering multiple editions for consumers, businesses, multimedia developers, and others.

Any operating system which runs from the hard disk drive is termed a Disk Operating System D. This also refers to the specific family of disk operating systems which is also known as MS-DOS or Microsoft disk operating system. This operating system which runs through the hard disk is known as a disk operating system. Watch our Demo Courses and Videos. DOS other than Microsoft in the market are:. It was the first operating system used by IBM-compatible computers. It was first available in two different versions that were typically the same, but marketed and controlled under two different brands.

List of Microsoft operating systems

This is a list of operating systems. Computer operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap. Criteria for inclusion is notability, as shown either through an existing Wikipedia article or citation to a reliable source.

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The first database for enterprise grid computing is the Oracle database. Explanation: The maximum length of the filename is 8 characters in the DOS operating system. It is commonly known as an 8. Explanation: The first operating system was developed in the early 's. It was also called a single-stream batch processing system because it presented data in groups.

It is a smaller amount probably employed in the current state of affairs whereas windows may be a wide used in operation system.

List of operating systems

Его руки двигались по ее груди. Сьюзан ничего не чувствовала. Неужели он ее трогает.

Повисла долгая тишина. Сьюзан словно во сне подошла и села с ним. - Сьюзан, - начал он, - я не был с тобой вполне откровенен.

The development of operating systems with a graphical user interface started in the s, which was when Microsoft decided to give MS-DOS a graphical user.

Operating System MCQ

Среднее время, потраченное на один шифр, - чуть более шести минут. Потребление энергии на среднем уровне. Последний шифр, введенный в ТРАНСТЕКСТ… - Она замолчала. - Что .

 Директор, Стратмору не удается отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Что?! - хором вскричали Бринкерхофф и Фонтейн. - Он пытался, сэр! - Мидж помахала листком бумаги.  - Уже четыре раза. ТРАНСТЕКСТ заклинило.

 Gratis? - по-прежнему увещевал бармен.  - За счет заведения. Превозмогая шум в голове, Беккер представил себе грязные улицы Трианы, удушающую жару, безнадежные поиски в долгой нескончаемой ночи. Какого черта.

В Третий узел заглянул Стратмор. - Какие-нибудь новости, Сьюзан? - спросил Стратмор и тут же замолчал, увидав Грега Хейла.  - Добрый вечер, мистер Хейл.  - Он нахмурился, глаза его сузились.  - Сегодня суббота.


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