Einsteins Relativity And The Quantum Revolution Pdf
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- Einstein's Revolution: A Case Study in Communicative Rationality
- The world after the Revolution: Physics in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
- Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists, 2nd Edition
- Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists
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Einstein's Revolution: A Case Study in Communicative Rationality
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein : special relativity and general relativity. General relativity explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature. The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton.
In the field of physics, relativity improved the science of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions, along with ushering in the nuclear age. With relativity, cosmology and astrophysics predicted extraordinary astronomical phenomena such as neutron stars , black holes , and gravitational waves. Albert Einstein published the theory of special relativity in , building on many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert A.
Max Planck , Hermann Minkowski and others did subsequent work. Einstein developed general relativity between and , with contributions by many others after The final form of general relativity was published in The term "theory of relativity" was based on the expression "relative theory" German : Relativtheorie used in by Planck, who emphasized how the theory uses the principle of relativity. By the s, the physics community understood and accepted special relativity.
By comparison, general relativity did not appear to be as useful, beyond making minor corrections to predictions of Newtonian gravitation theory. Its mathematics seemed difficult and fully understandable only by a small number of people.
Around , general relativity became central to physics and astronomy. New mathematical techniques to apply to general relativity streamlined calculations and made its concepts more easily visualized.
As astronomical phenomena were discovered, such as quasars , the 3-kelvin microwave background radiation , pulsars , and the first black hole candidates ,  the theory explained their attributes, and measurement of them further confirmed the theory. Special relativity is a theory of the structure of spacetime. It was introduced in Einstein's paper " On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies " for the contributions of many other physicists see History of special relativity.
Special relativity is based on two postulates which are contradictory in classical mechanics :. The resultant theory copes with experiment better than classical mechanics. For instance, postulate 2 explains the results of the Michelson—Morley experiment. Moreover, the theory has many surprising and counterintuitive consequences.
Some of these are:. The defining feature of special relativity is the replacement of the Galilean transformations of classical mechanics by the Lorentz transformations.
See Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. General relativity is a theory of gravitation developed by Einstein in the years — The development of general relativity began with the equivalence principle , under which the states of accelerated motion and being at rest in a gravitational field for example, when standing on the surface of the Earth are physically identical.
The upshot of this is that free fall is inertial motion : an object in free fall is falling because that is how objects move when there is no force being exerted on them, instead of this being due to the force of gravity as is the case in classical mechanics. This is incompatible with classical mechanics and special relativity because in those theories inertially moving objects cannot accelerate with respect to each other, but objects in free fall do so.
To resolve this difficulty Einstein first proposed that spacetime is curved. In , he devised the Einstein field equations which relate the curvature of spacetime with the mass, energy, and any momentum within it.
Technically, general relativity is a theory of gravitation whose defining feature is its use of the Einstein field equations. The solutions of the field equations are metric tensors which define the topology of the spacetime and how objects move inertially.
Einstein stated that the theory of relativity belongs to a class of "principle-theories". As such, it employs an analytic method, which means that the elements of this theory are not based on hypothesis but on empirical discovery.
By observing natural processes, we understand their general characteristics, devise mathematical models to describe what we observed, and by analytical means we deduce the necessary conditions that have to be satisfied. Measurement of separate events must satisfy these conditions and match the theory's conclusions. Relativity is a falsifiable theory: It makes predictions that can be tested by experiment.
In the case of special relativity, these include the principle of relativity, the constancy of the speed of light, and time dilation. Einstein derived the Lorentz transformations from first principles in , but these three experiments allow the transformations to be induced from experimental evidence.
Maxwell's equations —the foundation of classical electromagnetism—describe light as a wave that moves with a characteristic velocity. The modern view is that light needs no medium of transmission, but Maxwell and his contemporaries were convinced that light waves were propagated in a medium, analogous to sound propagating in air, and ripples propagating on the surface of a pond.
This hypothetical medium was called the luminiferous aether , at rest relative to the "fixed stars" and through which the Earth moves. The Michelson—Morley experiment was designed to detect second-order effects of the "aether wind"—the motion of the aether relative to the earth.
Michelson designed an instrument called the Michelson interferometer to accomplish this. The apparatus was more than accurate enough to detect the expected effects, but he obtained a null result when the first experiment was conducted in ,  and again in The interpretation of the null result of the Michelson—Morley experiment is that the round-trip travel time for light is isotropic independent of direction , but the result alone is not enough to discount the theory of the aether or validate the predictions of special relativity.
While the Michelson—Morley experiment showed that the velocity of light is isotropic, it said nothing about how the magnitude of the velocity changed if at all in different inertial frames. The Kennedy—Thorndike experiment was designed to do that, and was first performed in by Roy Kennedy and Edward Thorndike. Stilwell first in  and with better accuracy in The strategy was to compare observed Doppler shifts with what was predicted by classical theory, and look for a Lorentz factor correction.
Such a correction was observed, from which was concluded that the frequency of a moving atomic clock is altered according to special relativity. Those classic experiments have been repeated many times with increased precision. Other experiments include, for instance, relativistic energy and momentum increase at high velocities, experimental testing of time dilation , and modern searches for Lorentz violations. General relativity has also been confirmed many times, the classic experiments being the perihelion precession of Mercury 's orbit, the deflection of light by the Sun , and the gravitational redshift of light.
Other tests confirmed the equivalence principle and frame dragging. Far from being simply of theoretical interest, relativistic effects are important practical engineering concerns. Satellite-based measurement needs to take into account relativistic effects, as each satellite is in motion relative to an Earth-bound user and is thus in a different frame of reference under the theory of relativity.
It is logical to ask what symmetries if any might apply in General Relativity. A tractable case may be to consider the symmetries of spacetime as seen by observers located far away from all sources of the gravitational field. The naive expectation for asymptotically flat spacetime symmetries might be simply to extend and reproduce the symmetries of flat spacetime of special relativity, viz.
In Hermann Bondi , M. Metzner  and Rainer K. Sachs  addressed this asymptotic symmetry problem in order to investigate the flow of energy at infinity due to propagating gravitational waves.
Their first step was to decide on some physically sensible boundary conditions to place on the gravitational field at light-like infinity to characterize what it means to say a metric is asymptotically flat, making no a priori assumptions about the nature of the asymptotic symmetry group — not even the assumption that such a group exists. Then after designing what they considered to be the most sensible boundary conditions, they investigated the nature of the resulting asymptotic symmetry transformations that leave invariant the form of the boundary conditions appropriate for asymptotically flat gravitational fields.
What they found was that the asymptotic symmetry transformations actually do form a group and the structure of this group does not depend on the particular gravitational field that happens to be present.
This means that, as expected, one can separate the kinematics of spacetime from the dynamics of the gravitational field at least at spatial infinity. Not only are the Lorentz transformations asymptotic symmetry transformations, there are also additional transformations that are not Lorentz transformations but are asymptotic symmetry transformations.
In fact, they found an additional infinity of transformation generators known as supertranslations. This implies the conclusion that General Relativity does not reduce to special relativity in the case of weak fields at long distances. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the scientific concept. For philosophical or ontological theories about relativity, see Relativism. For the silent film, see The Einstein Theory of Relativity.
Introduction History. Fundamental concepts. Principle of relativity Theory of relativity General covariance Simultaneity Relativity of simultaneity Relative motion Event Frame of reference Inertial frame of reference Mass Inertial mass Rest frame Center-of-momentum frame Curvature Geodesic Equivalence principle Mass in general relativity Mass—energy equivalence Invariant Invariant mass Spacetime symmetries Special relativity Doubly special relativity de Sitter invariant special relativity Scale relativity Speed of light Time derivative Proper time Proper length Length contraction Action at a distance Principle of locality Riemannian geometry Energy condition.
Equations Formalisms. Birkhoff's theorem Geroch's splitting theorem Goldberg—Sachs theorem Lovelock's theorem No-hair theorem Penrose—Hawking singularity theorems Positive energy theorem.
Main articles: History of special relativity and History of general relativity. Main article: Special relativity. Main articles: General relativity and Introduction to general relativity. Main article: Tests of special relativity. Main article: Tests of general relativity. Physics portal Science portal. The Times. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia.
Retrieved Cambridge University Press. Bibcode : nqu.. Feynman Lectures on Gravitation. West view Press. Usenet Physics FAQ. University of California, Riverside. Oxford: Oxford Univ. American Journal of Science. Bibcode : AmJS July
The world after the Revolution: Physics in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
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Criticism of the theory of relativity of Albert Einstein was mainly expressed in the early years after its publication in the early twentieth century, on scientific , pseudoscientific , philosophical , or ideological bases. Reasons for criticism of the theory of relativity have included alternative theories, rejection of the abstract-mathematical method, and alleged errors of the theory. According to some authors, antisemitic objections to Einstein's Jewish heritage also occasionally played a role in these objections. Around the end of the 19th century, the view was widespread that all forces in nature are of electromagnetic origin the " electromagnetic worldview " , especially in the works of Joseph Larmor and Wilhelm Wien This was apparently confirmed by the experiments of Walter Kaufmann — , who measured an increase of the mass of a body with velocity which was consistent with the hypothesis that the mass was generated by its electromagnetic field.
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Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists, 2nd Edition
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Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists
During the first half of the twentieth century—actually, the first quarter—there were two major scientific revolutions. Those cognitive cataclysms took place in physics, and are known as the relativist and quantum revolutions. Much has been written, and will be written in the future, about the importance of those theories and their effect on physics as a whole, even before the middle of the century. For example, this theory helped explain how it was possible that radioactive elements uranium, polonium, radium, thorium that had been studied for the first time by Henri Becquerel and Marie and Pierre Curie , emit radiation in a continuous manner with no apparent loss of mass.
It provides unique orientation in today's discussion and the latest progress on the interpretation of quantum physics and its further technological potential. As you read this book the first prototypes of this revolution are being built in laboratories worldwide. Super-technologies such as nanotechnology, quantum computers, quantum information processing, and others will soon shape our daily lives, even if physicists themselves continue to disagree on how to interpret the central theory of modern physics. The book will thus also touch on the profound philosophical questions at the heart of quantum mechanics.
Einstein's Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for Non-Scientists, 2nd Edition is the companion book to the audio/video series of the same.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein : special relativity and general relativity. General relativity explains the law of gravitation and its relation to other forces of nature. The theory transformed theoretical physics and astronomy during the 20th century, superseding a year-old theory of mechanics created primarily by Isaac Newton. In the field of physics, relativity improved the science of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions, along with ushering in the nuclear age.