What Is The South African Government Providing And To Whom Pdf
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In this chapter, a description of the sample and the sites of research pertaining to the South African sample is provided.
- Structure and functions of the South African Government
- South Africa: Challenges and successes of the COVID-19 lockdown
- Description of the South African Context
Structure and functions of the South African Government
Language: English French. From one single case on March 5th, the number of cases increased rapidly, forcing the South-African Government to swiftly react and place the country under strict lockdown for six weeks.
The strategy of the South African Government bore fruits with a contained spread of the virus. If the number of positive cases at the end of the lockdown reached , the number of fatal casualties was limited to deaths.
The lockdown was overall well respected, even if serious problems of food supply soon occurred in informal settlements, leading to riots and confrontation with security forces. Indeed, populations were obedient, but not being able to practice sport or outdoors activities appeared heavy.
Despite the risk of an economic crisis, the South African Government has continued on the reasonable path of containing the pandemic with ending the lockdown at a slow pace, in five phases. In a context of global public-health disaster, it is interesting to see how the most affected country in Africa dealt with the crisis.
South African population is currently estimated at 59 million . This population is rather young, with a median age of The Eastern Cape, the poorest province in the country, is also the youngest one with a median age of 21 years old, whereas, in the more developed provinces of Gauteng and Western Cape, the median age is at 29 and 28 years old, respectively.
In the same vein, and because of its segregationist history, South Africa is still the most unequal country in the world with a Gini-coefficient of 0. Faced by a rapid increase of cases in the following days, the South African Government swiftly reacted and imposed on 23 March a strict lockdown on the population for three weeks starting on 26 March.
At that stage, the number of official positive cases had risen to , without any deaths. The lockdown, further extended to 30 April, was the most restrictive on the African continent, and one of the most restrictive in the world.
Shops, restaurants and non-essential businesses were closed, the population was only authorised to leave home for essential grocery shopping and medical reasons; no social, outdoors activities, sports or dog-walking were authorised, and a total ban on alcohol and cigarettes was imposed.
The lockdown was at the image of the country: diverse and contrasting. Among the middle class, the lockdown was particularly well respected . People, in general, stayed at home, managed to work remotely with access to the Internet and families were often happy together. The situation was otherwise in poorest areas and informal settlements . Promiscuity was a problem together with lack of proper sanitation  , which made everybody fear for a human catastrophe if the virus was to spread in these communities.
Distribution of food parcels  for the poorest communities was organised, but it seems that for many, it was not enough, even though several associations and individuals helped in providing food and helping with distribution .
Two trends in domestic violence were noted: sharp decline in domestic abuse due to alcohol, whereas domestic violence against women increased by the third week of lockdown . Overall, violent crimes decreased  , to even see gangs working together to feed communities . Contrarily to what sometimes happened in Europe, it seems that South Africa did not suffer from ostracism of medical professionals because of the fear that those medical staff could carry the virus  , .
The respect of South Africans for nurses and medical doctors together with the limited number of positive cases did not open the door to inappropriate behaviours . However, medical staff did not go through these first two months of pandemic without casualties: more than health workers were tested positive.
As per 6 May, twenty-six medical doctors had been hospitalised and two health workers, a doctor and a nurse had died from the coronavirus . As a result, nurses refused to continue working in some clinics close to Cape Town when some colleagues of them were tested positive . Overall, the response from South Africa to the dread of the pandemic seemed quite organised, and the response of the population was calm and composed.
Considering this situation, we tried to collect some information running a small quick assessment to better understand the feeling of the selected individuals regarding the COVID pandemic and the lockdown. Of course, such a quick assessment did not mean to replace a large-scale socio-economic and demographic survey, but at that stage, we aimed, at least, at reflecting on personal feelings.
This quick assessment took place on 24 April, questions were sent via emails and text messages to more than forty people from different backgrounds and residing in different areas of the country. Respondents were from the top middle-class, middle class and poorer backgrounds.
Living arrangements also covered different settings with some respondents being confined with families while others were alone, in formal or informal housing. Age-wise, we reached people from twenty to seventy-five years old. We were interested to know the conditions of the lockdown, and the state of mind of people confined, at that time, for little more than a month.
Respondents from the middle class living in formal housing answered that the lockdown was strictly respected in their areas. Staying indoors was considered a real issue by all respondents from the middle class, who were all missing sport and outdoors activities. In informal settlements, respondents from poorer backgrounds stated that the lockdown was not always respected as people needed to find food.
Those same respondents further stated that the biggest fear was not to be able to return to work, or find work, to earn a leaving to feed their families. Such a worry was shared by all respondents to a certain extent. Those with stable jobs were also concerned about the economic situation and the possibility to lose their jobs, but they also systematically stated fearing for the situation of the less privileged whom they knew and who were fighting for food. The biggest fear remained for all to fall sick or that a family member became infected.
None of the people interviewed, even in informal settlements, stated problems with reporting cases of misconduct to police: the consistent answer was that the lockdown was generally well respected, so there was no need of reporting to police. Concerning domestic violence, respondents generally agreed that thanks to the ban of alcoholic beverages, domestic violence seemed to have decreased, and this especially in poorer areas.
Finally, we observed that those who were confined with family members were systemically more optimistic than those confined alone. This plan, organised in five stages, made provision for gradual reopening of the economy and social life as per 1 May.
Stage four allowed reopening of a limited number of economic sectors with high economic or social value, authorised again trading of cigarettes and alcohol at certain times, but maintained confinement of the general population. Subsequent phases were to see restrictions lifted as the alert levels decrease.
This clear system was organised in a way that the alert levels would move up or down depending on the level of the pandemic. South Africa also received support from Cuban medical doctors that arrived in the country on 26 April . South African authorities planned for transformation of stadiums into hospitals  in case of outbreak. Economically wise, the Government projected to inject 26 billion USD into the economy, especially to help small and medium businesses, which suffered from the halt in trading.
The country seemed to have successfully controlled and planned the different phases of the pandemic. As per 7 May , the next step was to enter winter season and its uncertainties and to deal with relaxed restrictions, hoping that the curve of the pandemic remained stable and soon decreased. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Ann Med Psychol Paris. Published online May Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. A quick assessment: how did people react to the lockdown? Overall, responses were very homogenous based on the situation of the respondents. Open in a separate window. Disclosure of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
References 1. Agence France Presse. Al Joboory S. Ann Med Psychol. Associated Press. Cuban doctors arrive to help South Africa fight Coronavirus. Bouchard J. Creamer Media Reporter. Evans J. News24; Gumede W. WITS; SA faces food riots and breakouts from the lockdown. Hara M. Hlati O. City of Cape Town acquiring stand-in staff as Mfuleni nurses refuse to work.
IOL News. Cele welcomes drop in crime, but gender-based violence cases still high. Isilow H. Over S. Niehaus I. Pedro M. NGOs keen on helping government with food parcels distribution. South Africa News Agency. Department ramps up food parcel distributions. Stiegler N. The World Bank. Wyatt T. Coronavirus: gang kingpins in South Africa call truce to help community during pandemic. South Africa records drastic drop in violent crimes during lockdown.
South Africa: Challenges and successes of the COVID-19 lockdown
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary , operating in a parliamentary system. Legislative authority is held by the Parliament of South Africa. Executive authority is vested in the President of South Africa who is head of state and head of government, and his Cabinet. South Africa's government differs greatly from those of other Commonwealth nations. The national, provincial and local levels of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres, and are defined in the South African Constitution as "distinctive, interdependent and interrelated". Operating at both national and provincial levels "spheres" are advisory bodies drawn from South Africa's traditional leaders. It is a stated intention in the Constitution that the country be run on a system of co-operative governance.
Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure. However, children in South Africa engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and forced begging, each sometimes as the result of human trafficking. Labor inspectors are not authorized to assess penalties, and social programs are not sufficient to address the scope of child labor. Children in South Africa engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and forced begging, each sometimes as the result of human trafficking.
South Africa is a constitutional democracy with a three-tier system of the implementation of priority programmes and to provide a consultative platform on The event took place during the year in which the country was celebrating the.
Description of the South African Context
South African economists in the s described the national economy as a free-enterprise system in which the market, not the government, set most wages and prices. The reality was that the government played a major role in almost every facet of the economy, including production, consumption, and regulation. In fact, Soviet economists in the late s noted that the state-owned portion of South Africa's industrial sector was greater than that in any country outside the communist bloc. The South African government owned and managed almost 40 percent of all wealth-producing assets, including iron and steel works, weapons manufacturing facilities, and energy-producing resources.
Language: English French. From one single case on March 5th, the number of cases increased rapidly, forcing the South-African Government to swiftly react and place the country under strict lockdown for six weeks. The strategy of the South African Government bore fruits with a contained spread of the virus. If the number of positive cases at the end of the lockdown reached , the number of fatal casualties was limited to deaths. The lockdown was overall well respected, even if serious problems of food supply soon occurred in informal settlements, leading to riots and confrontation with security forces. Indeed, populations were obedient, but not being able to practice sport or outdoors activities appeared heavy.
YES, it is important to review and add welfare or subsidies payments periodically. Both of them are to remove some type of burden and work towards Ask your question! Help us make our solutions better Rate this solution on a scale of below We want to correct this solution. Tell us more Hide this section if you want to rate later. Questions Courses.
Parliament is the national legislature law-making body of South Africa. As such, one of its major functions is to pass new laws, to amend existing laws, and to repeal or abolish cancel old laws. This function is guided by the Constitution of South Africa, which governs and applies to all law and conduct within South Africa. Law is a system of rules, usually enforced through a set of institutions to regulate human conduct. It shapes politics, economics and society in many ways.
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There is overwhelming evidence that the quality of health care in South Africa has been compromised by various challenges that impact negatively on healthcare quality. Improvement in quality care means fewer errors, reduced delays in care delivery, improvement in efficiency, increased market share and lower cost. Decline in quality health care has caused the public to lose trust in the healthcare system in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to identify challenges that are being incurred in practice that compromise quality in the healthcare sector, including strategies employed by government to improve the quality of health delivery. Furthermore, websites were used to source policy documents of organisations such as the National Department of Health in South Africa and the World Health Organization. Seventy-four articles were selected from retrieved. These articles quantify problems facing quality care delivery and strategies used to improve the healthcare system in South Africa.
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