The Science And Technology Of Flexible Packaging Pdf

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The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging: Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use provides a comprehensive guide to the use of plastic films in flexible packaging, covering scientific principles, properties, processes, and end use considerations.

Green Technology for Surface Treatments of Aluminium Foil for Flexible Packaging

Packaging is the science , art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages.

Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics , sale, and end use.

Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. Package labeling American English or labelling British English is any written, electronic, or graphic communication on the package or on a separate but associated label. The first packages used the natural materials available at the time: baskets of reeds, wineskins bota bags , wooden boxes , pottery vases , ceramic amphorae , wooden barrels , woven bags, etc. Processed materials were used to form packages as they were developed: first glass and bronze vessels.

The study of old packages is an essential aspect of archaeology. The first usage of paper for packaging was sheets of treated mulberry bark used by the Chinese to wrap foods as early as the first or second century B. The usage of paper-like material in Europe was when the Romans used low grade and recycled papyrus for the packaging of incense. The earliest recorded use of paper for packaging dates back to , when a Persian traveller visiting markets in Cairo , Arab Egypt , noted that vegetables, spices and hardware were wrapped in paper for the customers after they were sold.

The use of tinplate for packaging dates back to the 18th century. The manufacturing of tinplate was the monopoly of Bohemia for a long time; in Andrew Yarranton , an English engineer , and Ambrose Crowley brought the method to England where it was improved by ironmasters including Philip Foley. Tinplate boxes first began to be sold from ports in the Bristol Channel in The tinplate was shipped from Newport, Monmouthshire.

Tobacconists in London began packaging snuff in metal-plated canisters from the s onwards. With the discovery of the importance of airtight containers for food preservation by French inventor Nicholas Appert , the tin canning process was patented by British merchant Peter Durand in He sold his patent in to two other Englishmen, Bryan Donkin and John Hall, who refined the process and product and set up the world's first commercial canning factory on Southwark Park Road, London.

By , they were producing the first canned goods for the Royal Navy. The progressive improvement in canning stimulated the invention of the can opener. Robert Yeates, a cutlery and surgical instrument maker of Trafalgar Place West, Hackney Road, Middlesex , UK, devised a claw-ended can opener with a hand-operated tool that haggled its way around the top of metal cans.

Set-up boxes were first used in the 16th century and modern folding cartons date back to The first corrugated box was produced commercially in in England. Corrugated also called pleated paper received a British patent in and was used as a liner for tall hats. Scottish-born Robert Gair invented the pre-cut paperboard box in —flat pieces manufactured in bulk that folded into boxes. Gair's invention came about as a result of an accident: as a Brooklyn printer and paper-bag maker during the s, he was once printing an order of seed bags, and the metal ruler, commonly used to crease bags, shifted in position and cut them.

Gair discovered that by cutting and creasing in one operation he could make prefabricated paperboard boxes. Commercial paper bags were first manufactured in Bristol , England , in , and the American Francis Wolle patented a machine for automated bag-making in Packaging advancements in the early 20th century included Bakelite closures on bottles , transparent cellophane overwraps and panels on cartons. These innovations increased processing efficiency and improved food safety.

As additional materials such as aluminum and several types of plastic were developed, they were incorporated into packages to improve performance and functionality.

In , Michigan State University became the first university in the world to offer a degree in Packaging Engineering. In-plant recycling has long been typical for producing packaging materials. Post-consumer recycling of aluminum and paper-based products has been economical for many years: since the s, post-consumer recycling has increased due to curbside recycling , consumer awareness, and regulatory pressure.

Many prominent innovations in the packaging industry were developed first for military use. Some military supplies are packaged in the same commercial packaging used for general industry. Other military packaging must transport materiel , supplies, foods, etc.

Packaging problems encountered in World War II led to Military Standard or "mil spec" regulations being applied to packaging, which was then designated "military specification packaging". As a prominent concept in the military, mil spec packaging officially came into being around , due to operations in Iceland experiencing critical losses, ultimately attributed to bad packaging. In most cases, mil spec packaging solutions such as barrier materials, field rations , antistatic bags , and various shipping crates are similar to commercial grade packaging materials, but subject to more stringent performance and quality requirements.

As of [update] , the packaging sector accounted for about two percent of the gross national product in developed countries. About half of this market was related to food packaging. Growing demand for packaged food by consumers owing to quickening pace of life and changing eating habits is expected to have a major impact on the market.

Packaging and package labeling have several objectives [18]. Packaging may be of several different types. For example, a transport package or distribution package can be the shipping container used to ship, store, and handle the product or inner packages. Some identify a consumer package as one which is directed toward a consumer or household.

Packaging may be described in relation to the type of product being packaged: medical device packaging, bulk chemical packaging, over-the-counter drug packaging, retail food packaging, military materiel packaging, pharmaceutical packaging, etc. It is sometimes convenient to categorize packages by layer or function: primary , secondary , etc.

These broad categories can be somewhat arbitrary. For example, depending on the use, a shrink wrap can be primary packaging when applied directly to the product, secondary packaging when used to combine smaller packages, or tertiary packaging when used to facilitate some types of distribution, such as to affix a number of cartons on a pallet.

Packaging can also have categories based on the package form. For example, thermoform packaging and flexible packaging describe broad usage areas. Many types of symbols for package labeling are nationally and internationally standardized.

Some requirements and symbols exist to communicate aspects of consumer rights and safety, for example the CE marking or the estimated sign that notes conformance to EU weights and measures accuracy regulations. Examples of environmental and recycling symbols include the recycling symbol , the recycling code which could be a resin identification code , and the "Green Dot".

Food packaging may show food contact material symbols. In the European Union , products of animal origin which are intended to be consumed by humans have to carry standard, oval-shaped EC identification and health marks for food safety and quality insurance reasons. Country-of-origin labeling is often used. Some products might use QR codes or similar matrix barcodes. Packaging may have visible registration marks and other printing calibration and troubleshooting cues.

Several aspects of consumer package labeling are subject to regulation. One of the most important is to accurately state the quantity weight, volume, count of the package contents. Consumers expect that the label accurately reflects the actual contents.

Manufacturers and packagers must have effective quality assurance procedures and accurate equipment; even so, there is inherent variability in all processes. Regulations attempt to handle both sides of this. Other regions and countries have their own regulatory requirements. Technologies related to shipping containers are identification codes, bar codes , and electronic data interchange EDI.

These three core technologies serve to enable the business functions in the process of shipping containers throughout the distribution channel. Each has an essential function: identification codes either relate product information or serve as keys to other data, bar codes allow for the automated input of identification codes and other data, and EDI moves data between trading partners within the distribution channel.

Small parcel carriers often have their own formats. RFID labels for shipping containers are also increasingly used. A Wal-Mart division, Sam's Club , has also moved in this direction and is putting pressure on its suppliers to comply.

Shipments of hazardous materials or dangerous goods have special information and symbols labels, placards, etc. On transport packages, standardized symbols are also used to communicate handling needs. Package design and development are often thought of as an integral part of the new product development process. Alternatively, the development of a package or component can be a separate process but must be linked closely with the product to be packaged.

Package design starts with the identification of all the requirements: structural design, marketing , shelf life , quality assurance , logistics , legal, regulatory, graphic design , end-use, environmental, etc. The design criteria, performance specified by package testing , completion time targets, resources, and cost constraints need to be established and agreed upon. Package design processes often employ rapid prototyping , computer-aided design , computer-aided manufacturing and document automation.

An example of how package design is affected by other factors is its relationship to logistics. When the distribution system includes individual shipments by a small parcel carrier, the sorting, handling, and mixed stacking make severe demands on the strength and protective ability of the transport package.

If the logistics system consists of uniform palletized unit loads , the structural design of the package can be designed to meet those specific needs, such as vertical stacking for a longer time frame. A package designed for one mode of shipment may not be suited to another.

With some types of products, the design process involves detailed regulatory requirements for the packaging. For example, any package components that may contact foods are designated food contact materials. Packaging engineers need to verify that the completed package will keep the product safe for its intended shelf life with normal usage.

Packaging processes, labeling, distribution, and sale need to be validated to assure that they comply with regulations that have the well being of the consumer in mind. Sometimes the objectives of package development seem contradictory. For example, regulations for an over-the-counter drug might require the package to be tamper-evident and child resistant : [29] These intentionally make the package difficult to open.

Meeting all goals is a challenge. Package design may take place within a company or with various degrees of external packaging engineering : independent contractors , consultants , vendor evaluations, independent laboratories, contract packagers, total outsourcing , etc.

Some sort of formal project planning and project management methodology is required for all but the simplest package design and development programs. An effective quality management system and Verification and Validation protocols are mandatory for some types of packaging and recommended for all.

Package development involves considerations of sustainability , environmental responsibility, and applicable environmental and recycling regulations.

It may involve a life cycle assessment [31] [32] which considers the material and energy inputs and outputs to the package, the packaged product contents , the packaging process, the logistics system, [33] waste management , etc. It is necessary to know the relevant regulatory requirements for point of manufacture, sale, and use. Development of sustainable packaging is an area of considerable interest to standards organizations , governments, consumers, packagers, and retailers.

Sustainability is the fastest-growing driver for packaging development, particularly for packaging manufacturers that work with the world's leading brands, as their CSR Corporate Social Responsibility targets often exceed those of the EU Directive.

Yam, Kit L. (ed.). The Wiley encyclopedia of packaging technology

In the flexible food packaging industry, producers of laminated aluminium predominantly use a "rinse" technology for surface treatments characterized by very bulky machinery. The Laminazione Sottile Group togehther with the University of Naples Federico II and the gscsg have developed and characterized a new, extremely simplified, process that provides a "no rinse" treatment on aluminium alloy AAY. In addition, this treatment is chromium free, because chromium has been replaced by zirconium salts. The characteristics of resistance have been verified by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy EIS and cathodic delamination tests. Results obtained show that the "no rinse" treatment with zirconium salts produces an effective protective effect.

Packaging and labeling

Yam, Kit L. Third Edition. The complete and authoritative guide to mode packaging technologies —updated and expanded From A to Z, The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, Third Edition covers all aspects of packaging technologies essential to the food and pharmaceutical industries, among others. This edition has been thoroughly updated and expanded to include important innovations and changes in materials, processes, and technologies that have occurred over the past decade.

The Commission strives for solutions to get all plastic packaging recyclable by FlexPack2Circle is a timely action to address the EU directives to stop incineration and landfilling and to recover secondary raw materials. Saperatec is worldwide the first company offering a holistic approach to transfer flexible packaging waste FlexPack into the circular economy by a breakthrough technology to recover ALL materials of multimaterial laminates.

By Barry A Morris. The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging: Multilayer Films from Resin and Process to End Use provides a comprehensive guide to the use of plastic films in flexible packaging, covering scientific principles, properties, processes, and end use considerations. The book brings the science of multilayer films to the practitioner in a concise and impactful way, presenting the fundamental understanding required to improve product design, material selection, and processes, and includes information on why one material is favored over another for a particular application, or how the film or coating affects material properties. Detailed descriptions and analysis of the key properties of packaging films are provided from both an engineering and scientific perspective.

Packaging is the science , art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics , sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells.

The Science and Technology of Flexible Packaging

Morris pdf, by Barry A.

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