The Use Of Pregnancy And Parenting Apps By Women In Nigeria Pdf

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the use of pregnancy and parenting apps by women in nigeria pdf

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Metrics details. In , Nigeria accounted for the highest prevalence of malaria worldwide. Pregnant women and children under five years bear the highest risk of malaria. Geographical factors affect utilization of insecticide-treated nets ITN , yet existing literature have paid little attention to the rural—urban dimension of ITN utilization in Nigeria.

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This study explores the barriers to accessing antenatal care ANC services amongst pregnant adolescents within a particular community of South Africa. An exploratory qualitative design was applied to examine the views of pregnant adolescents.

In-depth interviews were conducted with pregnant adolescents at the Mitchells Plain Midwifery Obstetric Unit, as well as nursing staff working at the facility. Thematic analysis was then used and analysis was framed using the social—ecological model for health-seeking behaviour.

This study found that barriers to adolescents seeking ANC often centered on a discourse of adolescent pregnancy being deviant, irresponsible, and shameful. Stigma regarding adolescent pregnancy participates in the perpetuation of a culture of non-disclosure and shame, which stands in the way of young pregnant people seeking the care they require. Such beliefs and attitudes need to be challenged at a community and national level. Maternal disorders are the second leading cause of death amongst adolescent girls, and adolescents face a higher risk of complications and death from pregnancy and childbirth than older women AbouZahr ; WHO Early adolescent pregnancy is also associated with increased HIV incidence Christofides et al.

Adolescents face barriers to accessing maternal health services creating missed opportunities for HIV testing and treatment, and early detection of potential complications. Early access to antenatal care ANC , amongst pregnant adolescents, is therefore a priority in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality Tsawe and Susuman ; Atuyambe et al.

Discourse on adolescent pregnancy and parenting centers around notions of deviance, irresponsibility, and shame Mkhwanazi This discursive framework, as well as the embedded gendered norms within it, is actively challenged by some civil society, scholarly work, and pregnant teens themselves Ngabaza and Shefer ; Macleod and Feltham-King In challenging the dominant discourse on adolescent pregnancy, there is a move to engage with the very real and potentially harmful outcomes of being young and pregnant, while simultaneously not inflicting harm.

This article situates itself within the local and global conversation that attempts to offer alternatives to the punitive and moralistic language often applied to adolescent pregnancy. National policy exists to prevent discriminatory practices that exclude pregnant students from education, and maternity care within government health facilities is available free of charge, yet adolescents still face numerous barriers to accessing SRH services Macleod and Feltham-King ; Cooper et al.

Pregnant adolescents often encounter violence, anger, and breakdown in relationships with parents or caregivers as a result of their pregnancy Hill et al. Mistreatment by or negative attitudes of healthcare workers HCWs and schoolteachers have also been identified as barriers to access to healthcare amongst pregnant adolescents Jewkes et al. These attitudes may be adopted to discourage sexual activity amongst adolescents and reflect deeply set patriarchal societal norms that punish particular reproductive and sexual behaviour based on cultural standards and socio-economic status Amroussia et al.

Delays in disclosure of pregnancy may lead to delays in adolescents seeking ANC, increasing the chances of pregnancy related complications going undetected Chaibva et al. This paper aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of pregnant adolescents utilizing one Midwifery Obstetric Unit MOU in urban Western Cape for their maternal health needs, in order to understand and explore barriers to access to care amongst pregnant adolescents within this specific context.

MOUs are free midwifery run maternal health facilities comprised of an antenatal clinic, labour ward, and postpartum care for women and newborns. The social—ecological model SEM of health-seeking behaviour is used in this paper to frame the results.

The theory suggests that factors at the individual level, community and structural level interact to shape health-seeking behaviour Sallis et al. This study used an exploratory qualitative study design. The interviews took place in a private space at the clinic by the lead researcher, who has undergone qualitative research training. Two nursing staff, with at least 2-year working experience at an MOU, were also interviewed as key informants.

Interviews were audio recorded and the lead researcher transcribed and analysed all interviews. The data was analysed manually using thematic analysis Robson The analysis started with familiarisation with the data through transcription and multiple readings of the transcripts. The lead researcher then coded the transcripts and proceeded to organise and sort the codes into themes. Data analysis was an iterative process and included reflection to ensure rigour.

In addition, data sources were triangulated through the inclusion of both pregnant adolescents and nursing staff. The study design, findings and interpretation of data were checked and discussed with the research supervisor for peer debriefing to minimise bias and ensure rigour.

Data collection began with a thorough informed consent process. Before the interviews were conducted, consent was given by all participants, and for participants under 18, consent was also sought from a parent or guardian. The community has high levels of crime, unemployment and poverty Department of Provincial and Local Government South Africa It has a birth rate of Pregnant adolescents in this study identified numerous barriers and facilitators for access to maternal health care.

The analysis and presentation of the results is framed by the social—ecological model SEM of health-seeking behaviour. The theory suggests that factors at the individual level, which may include intra and interpersonal, community and structural level interact and shape health-seeking behaviour Sallis et al. The individual level included emotional factors and knowledge regarding maternal health services. Although these factors acted at an individual level to influence the health-seeking behaviour, they were also heavily influenced by community and societal norms and expectations.

Participants indicated that they experienced negative emotional responses such as sadness, fear and guilt when they realised that they were pregnant. These negative responses were most likely a reaction to deviating from internalised societal norms possibly resulting in young women delaying ANC attendance. Unwanted pregnancy or being in denial of the pregnancy may also have led to delays in attendance. Knowledge about the availability and recommended timing of access to ANC services also influenced adolescent uptake of these services.

Many participants reported that they had little knowledge regarding general maternal health care. Yes, [I] actually [know] a little bit [about maternal health]. Family and social norms played a crucial role in access to ANC services. A common thread amongst the participants was fear of pregnancy disclosure to parents or guardians for fear of bringing shame to the family.

Pregnant adolescents anticipated a negative response to their disclosure and therefore delayed it. Then I did not want to come book [at the MOU for initial visit] or anything.

I wanted actually my mom to come with me, like now. Just…I was scared to tell them that is why I did not book before the time. Many participants only attended the MOU after their parents or caregivers knew about the pregnancy:.

A delay in pregnancy disclosure thus may lead to a delay in accessing ANC services amongst pregnant adolescents. Maybe you going to go where? Which place [are] you going to go? These delays in disclosure led to a delay in attending ANC for some young women. Nurses at the MOU acknowledged that fear of pregnancy disclosure was a barrier to maternal health care amongst adolescents.

Some of them [pregnant adolescents], they come to book [for delivery] late, just because they were hiding the pregnancy. Nurse, age Many participants reported that pregnancy disclosure was indeed met with anger from parents or guardians.

I was scared to tell my mommy and daddy about [the pregnancy]…and when I told, my mommy saw that I got fat and that, so I told her [that I am pregnant] and then she got kwaad [angry], and afterwards she was happy.

After disclosure, mothers seemed to change their mind to form a more positive impression, whereas fathers seemed to remain angry for longer:. At first my mommy scold[ed] at me but then she overcame it, but…my daddy is still cross…a bit.

This shift in mindset by mothers and grandmothers served as a facilitator for access to maternal health services. Pregnant adolescents in this study thus appeared to hold the advice of mothers and grandmothers to attend ANC in high regard. Societal norms and expectations appeared to cut across to operate at both individual and interpersonal levels to determine health-seeking behaviour.

Many participants reported that fearing judgment from the community delayed attendance at ANC services. Participants were aware that premarital sexual activity would be met with disapproval from their community, and felt judged for defying religious and societal expectations.

Participants therefore felt uncomfortable attending the MOU for their pregnancy, where older women and others in the community would be present. Participants reported that attending the MOU before disclosing the pregnancy to their parents or guardians carried the risk of them being identified by community members, who may inform their parents or guardians of the pregnancy.

I was, still afraid [to attend the MOU], someone walking past me that knows me [is going to] tell my parents [that I am pregnant], so… [I am] actually hiding a bit. Adolescents expressed a connection between the stigma within the community and the fear of their parents being informed of their pregnancy.

Fear of disclosing pregnancy at school was also a barrier to accessing health services. Pregnant adolescents were afraid to tell educators and peers about needing to miss school to attend the MOU, delaying their ANC attendance. Fear of disclosing pregnancy due to community attitudes that adolescent sexual activity is immoral and shameful was thus a significant barrier for access to ANC services amongst pregnant adolescents. At the system level, behaviour of HCWs influenced health-seeking behaviour.

You know what, sometimes the younger we are ne [hey]? Sometimes we scared to come to the clinic, you know, because nurses, doctors, they shout at us, [they ask us] why you having pregnancy as young you are? So we are scared [to come to the MOU].

Many participants had heard rumours about nurses being rude towards pregnant adolescents and therefore expected mistreatment from nurses resulting in delaying ANC access. I was scared [to come to the MOU] because, um, people thought, think that the nurses are very rude, but when I came here they were nice and they assisted me.

Nurses at the MOU were aware of the negative perceptions and identified this as a barrier for pregnant adolescent accessing care.

You know everybody has got that attitude that the sisters are shouting at people, so…otherwise, if you explain everything to them [pregnant adolescents], everything just goes right. The negative perceptions and bad experiences of adolescents regarding HCWs made pregnant adolescents fearful of accessing maternal healthcare services.

The purpose of this study is to explore the barriers to accessing ANC services amongst pregnant adolescents. The findings showed that multiple factors interact to influence access to ANC services amongst pregnant adolescents. These include fear, stigma, and the negative perceptions of HCWs. The SEM model for health-seeking behaviour highlights the interaction between individual, interpersonal, community and health system level factors interact to shape health-seeking behaviour Sallis et al.

The model failed to highlight the role of gender and gendered expectations as a barrier for seeking ANC amongst pregnant adolescents. Possibly because gender is so deeply ingrained in the above barriers and therefore hidden without the application of an intentional gender lens. This discussion therefore seeks to further elucidate the findings but with the application of a gender lens. Individual factors delaying ANC attendance centred on the guilt and regret for being pregnant, the fear of repercussions from family and the wider community and a lack of knowledge of ANC.

In many communities, cultural and religious rules dictate that pregnancy should only occur after marriage Amroussia et al.

While South Africa has high rates of fertility outside of marriage women may still face judgment and stigma when engaging in sexual activity at young ages and before marriage Morwe et al. Unmarried pregnant adolescents often delay disclosing the pregnancy to conceal their deviation from cultural and religious expectations.

An mHealth Framework to Improve Birth Outcomes in Benue State, Nigeria: A Study Protocol

Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Download the "easy to read" version. An increase in school enrolments from 40 to 60 percent is applauded as a success, not recorded as a violation of the right to education of the 40 percent of children who remain excluded from school. In recent years, many countries have been part of international and regional political drives to ensure that all children have access and complete education in the countries that lag behind the most. Such efforts have had some success, with tens of millions entering primary education, and more girls staying in school and pursuing secondary education, improving gender parity in more countries. More children and adolescents are at risk of dropping out of school, and many are at school facing unsuitable learning conditions.


Drugs in Pregnancy

See our Coronavirus resources for early childhood professionals. Do you know a family who wants to turn their Members of Congress into champions for babies? Advocacy Tool.

This study explores the barriers to accessing antenatal care ANC services amongst pregnant adolescents within a particular community of South Africa. An exploratory qualitative design was applied to examine the views of pregnant adolescents. In-depth interviews were conducted with pregnant adolescents at the Mitchells Plain Midwifery Obstetric Unit, as well as nursing staff working at the facility. Thematic analysis was then used and analysis was framed using the social—ecological model for health-seeking behaviour. This study found that barriers to adolescents seeking ANC often centered on a discourse of adolescent pregnancy being deviant, irresponsible, and shameful.

Drugs are used in over half of all pregnancies, and prevalence of use is increasing. The most commonly used drugs include antiemetics, antacids, antihistamines, analgesics, antimicrobials, diuretics, hypnotics, tranquilizers, and social and illicit drugs. Despite this trend, firm evidence-based guidelines for drug use during pregnancy are still lacking. However, few well-controlled studies of therapeutic drugs have been done in pregnant women.

Drugs are used in over half of all pregnancies, and prevalence of use is increasing.

How to Write a Letter to the Editor and an Opinion Editorial

Published on Authors of this article:. Background: China is the largest market for infant formula. With the increasing use of smartphones, apps have become the latest tool used to promote milk formula. Formula manufacturers and distributors both have seized the popularity of apps as an avenue for marketing. Objective: This study aimed to identify and analyze milk formula ads featured on Chinese pregnancy and parenting apps, to build the first complete picture of app-based milk formula marketing techniques being used by milk formula brand variants on these apps, and to more fully understand the ad content that potentially undermines public health messaging about infant and young child feeding. Methods: We searched for free-to-download Chinese parenting apps in the App Store, the biggest Android app store in China.

Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical , emotional , social , and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the intricacies of raising a child and not exclusively for a biological relationship. The most common caretaker in parenting is the father or mother, or both, biological parent s of the child in question, although a surrogate may be an older sibling, a step-parent, a grandparent, a legal guardian , aunt, uncle or other family member, or a family friend. In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent or non-blood relations. Others may be adopted , raised in foster care , or placed in an orphanage.

Adolescent pregnancies are a global problem but occur most often in poorer and marginalised communities. Many girls face considerable pressure to marry early and become mothers while they are still a child. Teenage pregnancy increases when girls are denied the right to make decisions about their sexual and reproductive health and well-being. Girls must be able to make their own decisions about their bodies and futures and have access to appropriate healthcare services and education. Girls who have received minimal education are 5 times more likely to become a mother than those with higher levels of education. Pregnant girls often drop out of school, limiting opportunities for future employment and perpetuating the cycle of poverty.

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 - Я воспользуюсь вашим лифтом. Сьюзан пойдет со. А вы останетесь. - Мне неприятно тебе это говорить, - сказал Стратмор, - но лифт без электричества - это не лифт. - Вздор! - крикнул Хейл.  - Лифт подключен к энергоснабжению главного здания. Я видел схему.

Однако он не смог удержаться от вопроса: - Сколько же вы хотите за оба экземпляра. - Двадцать миллионов американских долларов. Почти столько же поставил Нуматака. - Двадцать миллионов? - повторил он с притворным ужасом.  - Это уму непостижимо. - Я видел алгоритм. Уверяю вас, он стоит этих денег.

 Твой сценарий мне понятен. ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся, поэтому откройте двери и отпустите .

 Нечто знакомое, - сказала.  - Блоки из четырех знаков, ну прямо ЭНИГМА. Директор понимающе кивнул.

Внезапно он понял, что входит в собор. ГЛАВА 90 В шифровалке завывали сирены. Стратмор не имел представления о том, сколько времени прошло после ухода Сьюзан. Он сидел один в полутьме, и гул ТРАНСТЕКСТА звучал в его ушах. Вы всегда добиваетесь своего… вы добьетесь… Да, - подумал .


destructive and nondestructive testing of materials pdf

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For visitors who are not already familiar with NDT, the general information below is intended to provide a basic description of NDT and the most common test methods and techniques used when performing NDT. To maintain consistency, the techniques described for each test method are those listed in the edition of ASNT's Recommended Practice No. Nondestructive testing NDT is the process of inspecting, testing, or evaluating materials, components or assemblies for discontinuities, or differences in characteristics without destroying the serviceability of the part or system.