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- Reading Genesis 1-2: An Evangelical Conversation
- Explore Baker
- Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel
- Landscapes and Societies
Greer , John W. Hilber , John H. More Options.
Reading Genesis 1-2: An Evangelical Conversation
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Due to technical issues, this eBook may not contain all of the images or diagrams in the original print edition of the work. In addition, adapting the print edition to the eBook format may require some other layout and feature changes to be made. We are in the midst of an exciting season of dialogue regarding the opening chapters of the book of Genesis. Discoveries, for example, from the ancient Near East, fresh reading perspectives of literary genre and style, and significant engagement with Second Temple and Jewish literature all provide an opportunity to take up and read afresh the creation account in Genesis.
Evangelicals in the church and the academy are involved in a robust conversation on how to read Genesis in its ancient Israelite context. The early chapters of Genesis, it goes without saying, are foundational in constructing the framework and contours of a distinctly Jewish and Christian understanding of life and reality. As such, the doctrine of creation is critical for explaining the design and telos of the natural world and history.
It provides the basis for a coherent view of the universe from beginning to end, allowing for a unified sense of truth and meaning. And it explains why the universe is intelligible at all, facilitating the ability of human beings to probe and study it as rational beings who bear the imago Dei. Interpreting the Genesis creation narratives raises intriguing challenges for both epistemology and textual authority, as well as for the nexus of biblical and scientific claims.
How we approach the text has profound implications for theology, philosophy, and science. In this way, deriving their authority from Christian accord, they serve as an essential means by which Christian unity around the nonnegotiables is maintained, thereby reaffirming the parameters within which orthodox and heterodox teachings are acknowledged. As it relates to the creation narratives of Genesis, this common confession entails the fact of creation by a self-disclosing God.
That God created all things material and immaterial is not to require common confession or agreement around how, when, and in what manner this process occurred in space-time. Relatedly, creedal confession places a necessary ontological distinction between creator and creation, which in turn necessitates divine authority over all realms of creation—both human and nonhuman. Moreover, the doctrine of God as creator suggests the inherent or original goodness of creation.
This confession, alas, has enormous consequences for our understanding human nature, since human beings are fashioned in the image or likeness of God and thus as his viceroys reflect the very height of divine creation and share in stewardship over that creation. Given this image and human partaking in the divine nature, it is thus accurate to speak of an enormous metaphysical gap—a gap both qualitative and quantitative—which distinguishes human creation from all other life forms.
What is not good is that which human beings introduced into the world via their capacity to sin. The fact of human fallenness is not the fruit of scientific theory, exploration, or analysis; rather, it stands as a foundational aspect of revealed theology, even when it is confirmed by philosophical and psychological reflection on human nature. Given the lively—and at times contentious—debates that have emerged in recent years regarding origins and hermeneutical perspectives on the Genesis creation narratives debates at the center of which evangelical OT scholars often stand , the Institute invited five individuals who have done serious work in Genesis to enter into dialogue over important interpretative and theological matters issuing out of the creation narratives in Gen 1—2.
Broadly representative of wider evangelicalism, these scholars simultaneously share important common ground and acknowledge sharp disagreement in their respective positions. A sixth individual, Prof. Victor Hamilton of Asbury University, author of the highly acclaimed two-volume The Book of Genesis NICOT series , served as moderator of the two-day symposium and thus is well suited to provide the introduction.
The goal of the present volume is precisely that of the symposium from which it derives: namely, to foster irenic dialogue on matters deriving from the text of Gen 1—2 which are hermeneutically and theologically significant. Acknowledging areas of vast disagreement, the Bryan Institute and the contributors to this volume are committed to the conviction that conversation—indeed, even heated debate regarding contentious issues—can proceed in a charitable manner.
As the reader will discover, the two additional reflective essays in this volume that are offered by our Bryan College colleagues—Professors Ken Turner and Jud Davis—mirror a notable, and at times stunning, diversity of opinion regarding interpretive questions emerging from the Genesis text. While all contributors to the present volume affirm the infallibility of Scripture, we all are aware that our individual attempts at interpretation of Scripture are not infallible; hence, the need for open and honest dialogue within the bounds of Christian charity and confessional integrity.
The Bryan Institute is representative of the community of Bryan College, whose collegial faculty enthusiastically teach and live under the authority of the Scriptures. Standing with confessional believers who are deeply indebted to the ancient creeds, the confessions of church history, and the church fathers of any era, the Institute encourages a congenial conversation among Christian people as they read, interpret, and practice what God has revealed in the opening creation story of Genesis.
Amid a number of honest and sincere interpretations by thoughtful confessional scholars and laypeople whose ideas are represented in the ancient traditions of church history, we believe and confess that God has created all that exists, and that everything which constitutes the material and immaterial world was made and designed by God.
As part of a Christian liberal arts institution, the Bryan Institute does not adopt a particular interpretation concerning how the divine activity of creation occurred or how long it took in process.
The confessional rubric of creation-fall-redemption-consummation under which Christian theology proceeds leads the Christian community to confess that the divine purpose is incarnational in character, which presupposes an in-breaking of the suprahistorical into time-space and human affairs.
Although the biblical account of creation is communicated through human language that is poetic, artistic, and theologically rich, the fact that this literary account is set in an ancient Near Eastern ANE context in no way diminishes the authoritative and trustworthy character of divine revelation. Rather, we must encourage a robust conversation among Christian communities, which through theological studies, the humanities, and the natural sciences seek consensually to interpret the biblical text and are devoted to God and his Word for his world.
For this reason, a discussion over reading Genesis is one that must take place, and do so in a context of reason, calmness, and Christian charity. To this end the Reading Genesis symposium resulting in the present volume was convened. We hope that, in the end, the reader will share this vision. Richard E. Averbeck is co-editor with Mark W. Chavalas and David B. Young and Mark W.
Averbeck and his wife, Melinda, reside in Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, and have two sons and two grandchildren. Todd S. He is co-author with William A. He and his wife, Sharon, reside in Maryland. They have two married children and three grandchildren. He is author, co-author, editor, or co-editor of twelve books, including with David D. Louis, Missouri, where he has taught since Collins has been a research engineer, a church planter, and, since , a teacher. His early work focused on the grammar of Hebrew and Greek, but he has branched out into studies in science and faith, in how the NT uses the OT, and in biblical theology.
He and his wife have been married since and have two children. His research field is the christological use of the OT in the NT. He and his wife, Lynn, have five children. Victor P. Hamilton taught OT studies at Asbury University for thirty-six years, from until After retiring he held a five-year appointment — as scholar-in-residence at the university. He and his wife, Shirley, have four married children and thirteen grandchildren. He has also edited and contributed to numerous study Bibles, Bible dictionaries, and OT reference works.
Longman and his wife, Alice, have three sons and two granddaughters. Kenneth J. John H. More recently, Prof. Archaeology, Ancient Civilizations, and the Bible ed. He and his wife, Kim, have three children. In the printed edition, it was decided not to edit the ancient languages found in their respective scripts or in their transliteration within these chapters for unnecessary uniformity.
Rather, it was felt each author was clear within the context of his presentation and thus it is best to allow the reader, whether scholar or informed lay person, to understand the use of these words by the context in which they are encountered. In the e-publication the original scripts were transliterated in a general purpose style due to the present limitations of the technology.
Again, context and translations will suffice for the reader. Reference to technical grammatical terms or names for verbal forms, e. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to find any serious reader of the Bible, be she or he a biblical academician or a lay person, who would not underscore the crucial importance of Gen 1—2 for a variety of reasons.
After all, a cosmogony, such as one finds in Gen 1, is as much prescriptive as it is descriptive, if not more so. Accordingly, while it is appropriate to refer to Gen 1—2 as a prologue to Gen 1—11?
Or to Genesis as a whole? One could make an impressive case of the fact that without Gen 1—2 the rest of the Bible becomes incomprehensible. That includes both Testaments. At least with Gen 1—2 and Rev 21—22, the Bible ends the way it began, with an unsullied paradise, except the scene has shifted from a garden to a city, from Eden to the new Jerusalem.
However, despite the consensus about the importance of Gen 1—2, there are few portions of Scripture whose interpretation and meaning are as hotly contested as are those of these two chapters. This debate and questioning are as old as the Christian church, if not older. What man of intelligence will believe that the first and second and the third day, and the evening and the morning existed without the sun and moon and the stars?
And that the first day, if we may so call it, was even without a heaven? And who is so silly as to believe that God, after the manner of a farmer, planted a garden eastward in Eden, and set in it a palpable tree of life? I do not doubt that these are figurative expressions which indicate certain mysteries through a semblance of history and not through actual events. Augustine — AD , one of the giants of early Christendom, could not stop writing about Genesis.
He authored several commentaries on Genesis usually just Gen 1—3 and devoted several chapters in his Confessions to the topic. Augustine used this title not because he opposed any interpretation of Gen 1—2 other than a strictly literal one, as we use that word today. Rather, Augustine was saying, via the word literal, that he read Gen 1—2 as the story of creation and not as a story about the church or salvation as some were doing.
In several places he expresses his position that a literal interpretation does not fit the text, and so he resorts to allegory.
I fear that I will be laughed at by those who have scientific knowledge of these matters and by those who recognize the facts of the case. Augustine had no problem of light day 1 without sun or moon day 4 , for he took the light of day one allegorically, that is, light as spiritual truth To bring the discussion up to today, one notes that the discussion is no longer between those who read Gen 1—2 as myth and those who read it as literal and actual history.
Even in the wider evangelical portion of conservative Protestantism there are emerging divergent perspectives on reading Gen 1—2. To some this is salutary. To others it is a slippery slope. The essays to follow in this volume, all by highly esteemed and well-published OT evangelical scholars, will demonstrate this hermeneutical diversity.
Here is a sampling of some of these issues, several of which are science-related and several of which are theology-related. Two major points of dispute may overshadow the ones listed above.
Burns Harbor. We provide virtual and in-person healing work. The plan has received the blessings of village trustees. Parking is available on-site. I specialize in attending people long distance through phone readings that are out of state. Related Videos.
Averbeck no pay and limitless. Sara MilsteinAssociate Professor of Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near Eastern StudiesDirector of Graduate StudiesOffice Hours Friday phone The volumes, with their insightful and perceptive commentaries, updated footnotes, wonderful illustrations, and sidebars-all judiciously researched-contain a veritable thesaurus of enlightening information relating to the Hebrew Bible within the cultural, ideological, and religious world of the ancient Near East. Chief editor and major contributor to the Life and Culture in Ancient Near East Online Professor Within two weeks of your registration for the course, CUGN will assign one of its faculty members as the online professor. These tablets contained things like laws, administrative matters, and literature. East Africans and the Huari Culture.
Full-time and regular faculty include full-time teaching faculty and administrators, and faculty and administrators with part-time teaching loads and other institutional responsibilities. All are involved in daily campus life. The date that follows the name of each faculty member indicates the year that full-time teaching at Trinity began. James M. From to , Dr. Prior to these appointments, he taught history, theology, and writing for seven years at Gordon College where he was also a Visiting Fellow in the Center for Faith and Inquiry in
Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel
Many today find the Old Testament a closed book. The cultural issues seem insurmountable and we are easily baffled by that which seems obscure. Furthermore, without knowledge of the ancient culture we can easily impose our own culture on the text, potentially distorting it. This series invites you to enter the Old Testament with a company of guides, experts that will give new insights into these cherished writings.
The city's original name is unknown. During the second half of the third millennium BC, the city was known as Nagar and later on, Nawar. Starting as a small settlement in the seventh millennium BC, Tell Brak evolved during the fourth millennium BC into one of the biggest cities in Upper Mesopotamia , and interacted with the cultures of southern Mesopotamia.
Denver Seminary prepares men and women to engage the needs of the world with the redemptive power of the gospel and the life-changing truth of Scripture. Want to learn more about our academic degree programs? As you consider seminary, let us guide you through the process. We have a team of admissions counselors who are ready to assist you in any way you need.
Landscapes and Societies
DergiPark Seleucia Archive Issue 9. Year , Volume , Issue 9, Pages - Zotero Mendeley EndNote. Th e fact that the Mycenaean pottery is almost completely absent in the Central Anatolia and Cilicia region in the Late Bronze Age is the diff erent parts of a whole that cannot be explained by a single factor. Th ese components must be including diff erent determinants such as regional power balances, the role of the cultural characteristics of diff erent regions in the supply and demand balance, the limited production and the target market. It is seen that some of the dilemmas are found especially when the Hittites are to be explained in the axis of the idea of an embargo which was prevented by the Mycenaean merchants from entering the hinterland.
This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Due to technical issues, this eBook may not contain all of the images or diagrams in the original print edition of the work. In addition, adapting the print edition to the eBook format may require some other layout and feature changes to be made. We are in the midst of an exciting season of dialogue regarding the opening chapters of the book of Genesis. Discoveries, for example, from the ancient Near East, fresh reading perspectives of literary genre and style, and significant engagement with Second Temple and Jewish literature all provide an opportunity to take up and read afresh the creation account in Genesis.
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Home About Wiki Tools Contacts. By: Brien and Fin 2. File Size : Download : The ancient world of Mesopotamia from Sumer to the subsequent division into Babylonia and Assyria vividly comes alive in this portrayal of the time period from bce to the fall of Assyria bce and Babylon bce. Download : Ancient Irrigation The model below shows how an ancient irrigation system worked.
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AAN : Anthroponymie et anthropologie de Nuzi, vol. Hopkins Hrsg. AAT : J. ABC : Stevenson, J. Abel-Winckler : L.