Applied Anatomy Of The Heart And Great Vessels Pdf

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applied anatomy of the heart and great vessels pdf

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The heart is a muscular pump that pushes blood through blood vessels around the body. Blood vessels form the living system of tubes that carry blood both to and from the heart. All cells in the body need oxygen and the vital nutrients found in blood. Without oxygen and these nutrients, the cells will die.

Great Vessels of the Heart

We report 2 cases of transposition of the great arteries associated with anomalous pulmonary venous connection emphasizing the clinical findings, the diagnosis, and the evolution of the association. One of the patients had the anomalous pulmonary venous connection in its total infradiaphragmatic form, in the portal system, and the other patient had a partial form, in which an anomalous connection of the left superior lobar vein with the innominate vein existed. At the time of hospital admission, the patients had cyanosis and respiratory distress with clinical findings suggesting transposition of the great arteries. The diagnosis in 1 of the cases, in which the anomalous connection was partial, was established only with echocardiography, without invasive procedures that would represent risk for the patient; in the other case, in which the anomalous connection was total, the malformation was only evidenced with catheterization. The patients underwent surgery for anatomical correction of the heart disease. Only 1 patient had a good outcome. The association of transposition of the great arteries and anomalous pulmonary venous connection is very rare 1,2.

In transposition of the great arteries, the origins of the main arteries leading away from the heart — the aorta and the pulmonary artery — are switched transposed. Transposition of the great arteries is a serious but rare heart defect present at birth congenital , in which the two main arteries leaving the heart are reversed transposed. The condition is also called dextro-transposition of the great arteries. A rarer type of this condition is called levo-transposition of the great arteries. Transposition of the great arteries changes the way blood circulates through the body, leaving a shortage of oxygen in blood flowing from the heart to the rest of the body. Without an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood, the body can't function properly and your child faces serious complications or death without treatment.

Heart and Coronary Arteries

The human heart is a finely-tuned instrument that serves the whole body. It is a muscular organ around the size of a closed fist, and it sits in the chest, slightly to the left of center. This delivers oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to tissues and organs and carries away waste. The heart sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where the blood loads up with oxygen and unloads carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism. Together, the heart, blood, and blood vessels — arteries, capillaries, and veins — make up the circulatory system. In this article, we explore the structure of the heart, how it pumps blood around the body, and the electrical system that controls it. Below is an interactive 3D model of the heart.

The cardiovascular system is a closed system if the heart and blood vessels. The heart pumps blood through a closed system of blood vessels. Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body. The vital importance of the heart is obvious. If one assumes an average rate of contraction of 75 contractions per minute, a human heart would contract approximately , times in one day, more than 39 million times in one year, and nearly 3 billion times during a year lifespan.

The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria and lower left and right ventricles. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium , myocardium , and endocardium. The heart pumps blood with a rhythm determined by a group of pacemaking cells in the sinoatrial node. These generate a current that causes contraction of the heart, traveling through the atrioventricular node and along the conduction system of the heart. The heart receives blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation , which enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation , through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide.


The fibrous pericardium forms a tough outer sac, which envelops the heart and attaches to the great vessels. The ascending aorta, pulmonary artery, terminal. 2 to.


The heart: All you need to know

Matthew D. Tam, Anatomy remains the cornerstone of much diagnosis and treatment. There are old ways and new ways of seeing, and imaging strategies offer elegant ways of demonstrating and explaining anatomical concepts as well as defining patient disease.

The great vessels of the heart function to carry blood to and from the heart as it pumps, located largely within the middle mediastinum. In this article we will consider the structure and anatomical relationships of the aorta , pulmonary arteries and veins , and the superior and inferior vena cavae. The aorta is the largest artery in the body.

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Беккер повернулся и еще раз оглядел больничную палату. В ней царила полная тишина. Прямо перед ним, откинувшись на груду старых подушек, лежал пожилой человек с ярко-белой гипсовой повязкой на правом запястье. ГЛАВА 21 Голос американца, звонившего Нуматаке по прямой линии, казался взволнованным: - Мистер Нуматака, в моем распоряжении не больше минуты. - Хорошо. Полагаю, вы получили обе копии ключа. - Вышла небольшая заминка, - сказал американец.

 Какому соглашению? - Немец слышал рассказы о коррупции в испанской полиции. - У вас есть кое-что, что мне очень нужно, - сказал Беккер. - Да-да, конечно, - быстро проговорил немец, натужно улыбаясь. Он подошел к туалетному столику, где лежал бумажник.  - Сколько.

 Руки на стол, - бросила она через плечо.  - Когда я уйду, пожалуйста, никаких глупостей. И у стен есть. Бринкерхофф опустился на стул, слушая, как стук ее каблуков затихает в конце коридора.

Heart and Coronary Arteries

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