The Expected Profile Of An Interpreter And Its Relevance To A Practitioner Of Interpretation Pdf
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Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms or supports one's prior beliefs or values. The effect is strongest for desired outcomes, for emotionally charged issues, and for deeply entrenched beliefs. Confirmation bias cannot be eliminated entirely, but it can be managed, for example, by education and training in critical thinking skills.
He is a sympathetic character in that he was wronged by his usurping brother, but his absolute power over the other characters and his overwrought speeches make him difficult to like. In our first glimpse of him, he appears puffed up and self-important, and his repeated insistence that Miranda pay attention suggest that his story is boring her. The pursuit of knowledge gets Prospero into trouble in the first place. By neglecting everyday matters when he was duke, he gave his brother a chance to rise up against him.
The second edition has been revised and updated throughout, offering: Offering suggestions for discussion, activities, and hints for the teaching of translation, the second edition of Becoming a Translator remains invaluable for students on and teachers of courses in translation, as well as for professional translators and scholars of translation and IntroductionThe present-day rapid development of science and technology, as well as the continuous growth of cultural, economic, and political relations between nations, have confronted humanity with exceptional difficulties in the assimilation of useful and necessary information.
No way has yet been found to solve the problems in overcoming language barriers and of accelerated assimilation of scientific and technological achievements by either the traditional or modern methods of teaching. A new approach to the process of teaching and learning is, therefore, required if the world is to meet the needs of today and tomorrow.
Georgi Lozanov, Suggestologj and Outlines of Suggestopedy The study of translation and the training of professional translators is without question an integral part of the explosion of both intercultural relations and the transmission of scientific and technological knowledge; the need for a new approach to the process of teaching and learning is certainly felt in translator and interpreter training programs around the world as well.
How best to bring student translators up to speed, in the literal sense of helping them to learn and to translate rapidly and effectively? How best to get them both to retain the linguistic and cultural knowledge and to master the learning and translation skills they will need to be effective professionals? At present the prevailing pedagogical assumptions in translator training programs are 1 that there is no substitute for practical experience -to learn how to translate one must translate, translate, translate -and 2 that there is no way to accelerate that process without damaging students' ability to detect errors in their own work.
Faster is generally better in the professional world, where faster translatorsprovided that they continue to translate accurately -earn more money; but it is generally not considered better in the pedagogical world, where faster learners are thought to be necessarily careless, sloppy, or superficial. This book is grounded in a simultaneous acceptance of assumption 1 and rejection of assumption 2. There is no substitute for practical experience, and translator training programs should continue to provide their students with as much of it as they can.
But there are ways of accelerating that process that do not simply foster bad work habits. The methodological shift involved is from a pedagogy that places primary emphasis on conscious analysis to a pedagogy that balances conscious analysis with subliminal discovery and assimilation. The more consciously, analytically, rationally, logically, systematically a subject is presented to students, and the more consciously and analytically they are expected to process the materials presented, the more slowly those materials are internalized.
And this is often a good thing. Professional translators need to be able to slow down to examine a problematic word or phrase or syntactic structure or cultural assumption painstakingly, with full analytical awareness of the problem and its possible solutions. Slow analysis is also a powerful source of new knowledge. Without the kinds of problems that slow the translation process down to a snail's pace, the translator would quickly fall into a rut. The premise of this book is, however, that in the professional world slow, painstaking, analytical learning is the exception rather than the rule -and should be in the academic world of translator training as well.
All humans learn better, faster, more effectively, more naturally, and more enjoy ably through rapid and holistic subliminal channels. Conscious, analytical learning is a useful check on more efficient learning channels; it is not, or at least it should not be, the only or even main channel through which material is presented. This book, therefore, is set up to shuttle between the two extremes of subliminal or unconscious learning, the "natural" way people learn outside of class, and conscious, analytical learning, the "artificial" way people are traditionally taught in class.
As teaching methods move away from traditional analytical modes, learning speeds up and becomes more enjoyable and more effective; as it approaches the subliminal extreme, students learn enormous quantities of material at up to ten times the speed of traditional methods while hardly even noticing that they're learning anything. Because learning is unconscious, it seems they haven't learned anything; to their surprise, however, they can perform complicated tasks much more rapidly and confidently and accurately than they ever believed possible.
Introduction 3 to shift from one to the other when the situation requires it and also to recognize when the situation does require it. Hence the rather strange look of some of the chapters, and especially the exercises at the end of the chapters. Teachers and students accustomed to traditional analytical pedagogies will probably shy away at first from critical perspectives and hands-on exercises designed to develop subliminal skills.
And this critical caution is a good thing: it is part of the shuttle movement from subliminal to conscious processing.
The topics for discussion that precede the exercises at the end of every chapter are in fact designed to foster just this sort of critical skepticism about the claims made in the chapter. Students should be given a chance both to experience the power of subliminal learning and translating and to question the nature and impact of what they are experiencing.
Subliminal functioning without critical self-awareness quickly becomes mind-numbing mechanical routine; analytical critiques without rich playful experience quickly become inert scholasticism. The primary course for which this textbook is intended is the introduction to the theory and practice of translation. Such introductory courses are designed to give undergraduate and, in some cases, graduate students an overall view of what translators do and how translation is studied.
To these ends the book is full of practical details regarding the professional activities of translators, and in Chapters it offers ways of integrating a whole series of theoretical perspectives on translation, from psychological theories in Chapter 6 through terminological theories in Chapter 7, linguistic theories in Chapter 8, and social theories in Chapter 9 to cultural theories in Chapter In addition, however, the exercises are designed not only to teach about translation but to help students translate better as well; and the book might also be used as supplementary material in practical translation seminars.
Since the book is not written for a specific language combination, the teacher will have to do some work to adapt the exercises to the specific language combination in which the students are working; while suggestions are given on how this might be done, it would be impossible to anticipate the specific needs of individual students in countries around the world. If this requires more active and creative input from teachers, it also allows teachers more latitude to adapt the book's exercises to their students' needs.
Since most translators traditionally myself included were not trained for the job, and many still undergo no formal training even today, I have also set up the book for self-study. Readers not currently enrolled in, or employed to teach in, translator training programs can benefit from the book by reading the chapters and doing the exercises that do not require group work.
Many of the exercises designed for group work can easily be adapted for individuals. The main thing is doing the exercises and not just thinking about them. Thought experiments work only when they are truly experiments and not just reflection upon what this or that experiment might be like.
Internal and external knowledgeTranslation is different things for different groups of people. For people who are not translators, it is primarily a text; for people who are, it is primarily an activity. Or, as Anthony Pym , puts it, translation is a text from the perspective of "external knowledge," but an activity aiming at the production of a text from the perspective of "internal knowledge. A great deal of thinking and teaching about translation in the past has been controlled by what is essentially external knowledge, text-oriented approaches that one might have thought of greater interest to non-translators than translators -so much, in fact, that these external perspectives have in many ways come to dominate the field.
Ironically enough, traditional approaches to translation based on the nontranslating user's need for a certain kind of text have only tended to focus on one of the user's needs: reliability often called "equivalence" or "fidelity". A fully useroriented approach to translation would recognize that timeliness and cost are equally important factors.
Let us consider these three aspects of translation as perceived from the outside -translation users' desire to have a text translated reliably, rapidly, and cheaply -in turn.
ReliabilityTranslation users need to be able to rely on translation. They need to be able to use the translation as a reliable basis for action, in the sense that if they take action on the belief that the translation gives them the kind of information they need about the original, that action will not fail because of the translation. And they need to be able to trust the translator to act in reliable ways, delivering reliable translations by deadlines, getting whatever help is needed to meet those deadlines, and being flexible and versatile in serving the user's needs.
Let's look at these two aspects of translation reliability separately. Textual reliabilityA text's reliability consists in the trust a user can place in it, or encourage others to place in it, as a representation or reproduction of the original.
To put that differently, a text's reliability consists in the user's willingness to base future actions on an assumed relation between the original and the translation. For example, if the translation is of a tender, the user is most likely the company to which the tender has been made. If the translation is done in-house, or if the client gives an agency or freelancer specific instructions, the translator may be in a position to summarize certain paragraphs of lesser importance, while doing painstakingly close readings of certain other paragraphs of key importance.
Or again, if the translation is of a literary classic, the user may be a teacher or student in a class that is reading and discussing the text. If the class is taught in a mother-tongue or comparative literature department, "reliability" may mean that the users agree to act as if the translation really were the original text.
For this purpose a translation that reads as if it had originally been written in the target language will probably suffice. If the class is an upper-division or graduate course taught in a modern-language or classics department, "reliability" may mean that the translation follows the exact syntactic contours of the original, and thus helps students to read a difficult text in a foreign language. For this purpose, various "cribs" or "interlinears" are best -like those New Testament translations published for the benefit of seminary students of Greek who want to follow the original Greek text word for word, with the translation of each word printed directly under the word it renders.
Or if the translation is of advertising copy, the user may be the marketing department in the mother company or a local dealer, both of whom will presumably expect the translation "reliably" to sell products or services without making impossible or implausible or illegal claims; or it may be prospective customers, who may expect the translation to represent the product or service advertised reliably, in the sense that, if they should purchase one, they would not feel that the translation had misrepresented the actual service or product obtained.
As we saw above, this discussion of a text's reliability is venturing into the territory traditionally called "accuracy" or "equivalence" or "fidelity. There are many different types of textual reliability; there is no single touchstone for a reliable translation, certainly no single simple formula for abstract semantic let alone syntactic "equivalence" that can be applied easily and unproblematically in every case.
A text that meets those demands will be called a "good" or "successful" translation, period, even if another user, with different expectations, might consider it bad or unsuccessful; a text considered a failure by some users, because it doesn't meet their reliability needs, might well be hailed as brilliant, innovative, sensitive, or highly accurate by others.
It is perhaps unfortunate, but probably inevitable, that the norms and standards appropriate for one group of users or use situations should be generalized to apply to all. Because some users demand literal translations, for example, the idea spreads that a translation that is not literal is no translation at all; and because some users demand semantic sense-for-sense equivalence, the idea spreads that a translation that charts its own semantic path is no translation at all.
Thus a free retelling of a children's classic may be classified as an "adaptation" rather than a translation; and an advertising translation that deviates strikingly from the original in order to have the desired impact on target readers or viewers i. Each translation user, limited to the perspective of her or his own situational needs, may quite casually fall into the belief that those needs aren't situational at all, indeed aren't her or his needs at all, but simply the nature of translation itself.
All translation is thus-and-such -because this translation needs to be, and how different can different translations be? The fact that they can be very different indeed is often lost on users who believe their own expectations to be the same as everyone else's.
This mistaken belief is almost certainly the source of the quite widespread notion that "fidelity," in the sense of an exact one-to-one correspondence between original and translation, is the only goal of translation. The notion arises when translation is thought of exclusively as a product or commodity rather than as an activity or process , and when the reliability of that product is thought of narrowly in terms of exact correspondence between texts rather than as a whole spectrum of possible exchanges.
Reliably translated texts cover a wide range from the lightly edited to the substantially rewritten, with the "accurate" or "faithful" translation somewhere in the middle; there is no room in the world of professional translation for the theoretical stance that only straight sense-for-sense translation is translation, therefore as a translator I should never be expected to edit, summarize, annotate, or re-create a text. While some effort at user education is probably worthwhile, it is usually easier for translators simply to shift gears, find out or figure out what the user wants or needs or expects, and provide that -without attempting to enlighten the user about the variability and volatility of such expectations.
Many times clients' demands are unreasonable, unrealistic, even impossible -as when the marketing manager of a company going international demands that an advertising campaign in fourteen different languages be identical to the original, and that the translators in all fourteen languages show that this demand has been met by providing literal backtranslations of their work. Then the translators have to decide whether they are willing to undertake the job at all; and if so, whether they can figure out a way to do it that satisfies the client without quite meeting her or his unreasonable demands.
For the hard fact is that translators, with all their internal knowledge, can rarely afford to ignore the external perspectives of non-translators, who are, after all, the source of our income. As Anthony Pym notes wryly, in conversation with a client it makes little sense to stress the element of creative interpretation present in all translation; this will only create misunderstandings. From the client's external point of view, "creative interpretation" spells flagrant distortion of the original, and thus an unreliable text; from the translator's internal point of view, "creative interpretation" signals the undeniable fact that all text-processing involves some degree of interpretation and thus some degree of creativity, and beyond that, the translator's sense that every target language is more or less resistant to his or her activities.
When accuracy alone is wide of the mark by Michael Benis Accuracy is essential to a good translation, but it cannot guarantee that a text will be effective. Writing practices vary greatly between countries for everything from technical manuals to speeches and ads. Meaning that reader expectations also differ, causing the clarity and effectiveness of the text to suffer if it is not rewritten to suit. You gain significant benefits, including cost-efficiency, when this is done at the same time as the translation.
But most important of all, you can be sure the rewriting will not take the meaning too far away from the original -as in a game of "chinese whispers.
Few things impact on your image as much as the effectiveness of your communications. Make sure they are in safe hands. Notice that this list is closely related to the traditional demand that the translator be "accurate," and indeed contains that demand within it, under "Attention to detail," but that it is a much more demanding conception of reliability than merely the expectation that the translator's work be "correct.
Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law , as an advocate , attorney at law , barrister , barrister-at-law , bar-at-law , canonist , canon lawyer, civil law notary , counsel , counselor, counsellor, solicitor , legal executive , or public servant preparing, interpreting and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across different legal jurisdictions. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer. As a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers, barrister and solicitors , whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer who specializes in higher court appearances. A solicitor is a lawyer who is trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Download a printable copy [PDF]: 8. Preamble Members of the Society of Professional Journalists believe that public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. Ethical journalism strives to ensure the free exchange of information that is accurate, fair and thorough. An ethical journalist acts with integrity. The Society declares these four principles as the foundation of ethical journalism and encourages their use in its practice by all people in all media. Now available: Media Ethics: 5th Edition Closely organized around SPJ's Code of Ethics, this updated edition uses real-life case studies to demonstrate how students and professionals in journalism and other communication disciplines identify and reason through ethical dilemmas. Order now: — Bookshop.
While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. Objective Semiotica is published in six annual issues, in two languages English and French. From time to time, Special Issues, devoted to topics of particular interest, are assembled by Guest Editors. The publishers of Semiotica offer an annual prize, the Mouton d'Or, to the author of the best article each year.
Handbook for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations using the GRADE approach. Updated October Framing the health care question. Selecting and rating the importance of outcomes. Summarizing the evidence.
Our data analysis suggests classifying countries in five groups, 1 Western countries, 2 East Block, 3 developed Southeast Asian countries, 4 Northern Hemisphere developing countries and 5 Southern Hemisphere countries. Comparing the number of deaths per million inhabitants, a pattern emerges in which the Western countries exhibit the largest mortality rate.
Police interpreting: The facts sheet
Background: Although knowledge translation is one of the most widely used concepts in health and medical literature, there is a sense of ambiguity and confusion over its definition. The aim of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of KT. This will assist the theoretical development of it and shape its implementation into the health care system. A total of papers were analyzed. Results: Review of the literature showed that "KT is a process" and "implementing refined knowledge into a participatory context through a set of challenging activities" are the characteristics of KT.
Physicians and surgeons diagnose and treat injuries or illnesses. Physicians examine patients; take medical histories; prescribe medications; and order, perform, and interpret diagnostic tests. They often counsel patients on diet, hygiene, and preventive healthcare.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The Committee on the Foundations of Assessment produced this report, with the support of the National Science Foundation NSF , to review and synthesize advances in the cognitive and measurement sciences and to explore the implications of those advances for improving educational assessment.
How do we test the independence of two categorical variables? It will be done using the Chi-square test of independence. As with all prior statistical tests we need to define null and alternative hypotheses.