The Universe Before The Big Bang Cosmology And String Theory Pdf

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the universe before the big bang cosmology and string theory pdf

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In physical cosmology , cosmic inflation , cosmological inflation , or just inflation , is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. Following the inflationary period, the universe continued to expand, but at a slower rate. Inflation theory was developed in the late s and early 80s, with notable contributions by several theoretical physicists , including Alexei Starobinsky at Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics , Alan Guth at Cornell University , and Andrei Linde at Lebedev Physical Institute.

In many religious traditions, one of the standard roles of the deity has been to create the universe. The first line of the Bible, Genesis , is a plain statement of this role. For the purposes of this essay, however, we will limit ourselves to versions of God that play some role in explaining the world we see.

Before the Big Bang: The Prehistory of Our Universe

Shortly before his death, Stephen Hawking left us his final legacy — a theory developed with physicist Thomas Hertog that tackles the problem of multiple, infinite universes. Current Big Bang theories predict that it gave rise to not one but many universes, called the multiverse. But the multiverse holds a limitless number of possibilities. And this is where the problem lies. Since anything is possible somewhere in this collection of universes, the theory fails to predict very much about our own universe. According to the eternal inflation theory, for a fraction of a second after the Big Bang, space-time must have expanded at an enormous rate.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Over the past several decades, physicists and astronomers have constructed a remarkable paradigm, known as the big bang model, to describe the expanding universe. By combining observations of distant galaxies, the cosmic microwave background CMB radiation, and the abundances of the lightest elements with the fundamental theories of gravity and atomic and nuclear physics, researchers have been able to account, in large measure, for the evolution of the universe from the first few seconds until the present see Box 4. In the wake of this progress, there are new and deeper questions to be answered and mysteries to be explained: Is the universe flat in its spatial directions, and if so, why? Where did the structure around us—from individual galaxies to the great walls of galaxies—originate? What went bang and started the expansion?

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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Terms such as "expanding Universe", "big bang", and "initial singularity", are nowadays part of our common language. The idea that the Universe we observe today originated from an enormous explosion big bang is now well known and widely accepted, at all levels, in modern popular culture. But what happens to the Universe before the big bang?

A new cosmological theory points to a smaller, simpler, finite universe

In a cyclic universe, periods of expansion alternate with periods of contraction. The universe has no beginning and no end. The standard story of the birth of the cosmos goes something like this: Nearly 14 billion years ago, a tremendous amount of energy materialized as if from nowhere. In a brief moment of rapid expansion, that burst of energy inflated the cosmos like a balloon. The expansion straightened out any large-scale curvature, leading to a geometry that we now describe as flat.

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Дэвид, вспомнила Сьюзан. Она заставляла себя не думать о. Ей нужно было сосредоточиться на неотложных вещах, требующих срочного решения. - Я возьму на себя лабораторию систем безопасности, - сказал Стратмор.

 Это не имеет никакого отношения к Попрыгунчику, - резко парировала. Вот это чистая правда, - подумал Джабба. - Послушай, Мидж, к Стратмору я не отношусь ни плохо ни хорошо.

Вращающиеся огни напоминали вертолеты, идущие на посадку в густом тумане. Но перед его глазами был только Грег Хейл - молодой криптограф, смотрящий на него умоляющими глазами, и выстрел. Хейл должен был умереть - за страну… и честь. Агентство не может позволить себе еще одного скандала.

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