Discuss Prenatal Factors Which Affect Child Development And Learning Pdf

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Multiple-stage least squares analyses were used to generate uncorrelated residuals of postnatal growth.

Development: An Amazing Journey

Although these reported rates have declined in recent years, they may not reflect exposure early in the pregnancy before women know they are pregnant. Information from current studies demonstrates the importance of developing strategies to promote the health and development of exposed children, to implement effective prevention programs, and to avoid the unnecessary anxiety that can stigmatize mothers and children.

The knowledge base regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse is growing, often in response to interest by scientists and the support available from federal funding sources.

Currently, there is a great deal of attention being paid to the effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco and to methamphetamines. Much of the recent research on the effects of prenatal drug exposure has been conducted among young children exposed to cocaine prenatally.

The emerging findings on performance during the school-age years have been mixed. Some investigators have found that prenatal cocaine exposure is not associated with cognitive performance Chasnoff et al. However, others have found that prenatal cocaine exposure may be associated with behavior problems Chasnoff et al. The special issue presents the results of several innovative avenues of investigation. Two investigators incorporated physiological measures into the pre- and postnatal periods.

Zeskind and Gingras found that maternal cigarette smoking affected the autonomic regulation of the unborn fetus. Schuetze and Eiden documented a dose effect linking prenatal cocaine exposure with two physiological measures of regulation heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the first few weeks of life.

Sheinkopf et al. Working with preschoolers, Behnke et al. Bendersky, Bennett, and Lewis found that although cocaine exposure contributed to aggression among 5-year-olds, male gender and a high-risk environment were important contributors. Finally, in an investigation of 6- and 9.

Three investigators focused on alcohol exposure. Howell, Lynch, Platzman, Smith, and Coles found that adolescents who had been prenatally exposed to alcohol had low scores on tests of IQ and mathematics achievement, but no increased incidence of conduct problems.

In the only investigation to focus on an educational intervention, Padgett, Strickland, and Coles found that children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome learned safety skills efficiently by using a computer-based virtual reality game. The primary focus on cocaine in this issue may reflect the extent to which attention and resources were focused on this topic over the last 15 years.

Alcohol and tobacco, which are commonly used drugs, have not been the focus of as much public health concern as the illicit drugs, and consequently, there are relatively few studies in this area. The impact of methamphetamine use, although currently a focus of attention in the media, has not yet received significant scientific attention, and published research in this area is very limited and certainly tentative.

Other substances that might be of interest to the practitioner, such as prescription drugs that are used either with or without medical supervision e. Although such substances are widely used, there is limited ongoing research in these areas, and no articles on this topic were submitted for inclusion in this issue.

As we read the submissions to this issue, we came to several conclusions about the field. In contrast to the way in which problems were viewed in previous decades, there is now considerable maturity in the approach to problems and in the interpretation of outcomes.

As a consequence, the approach to investigating the effects of prenatal exposure has become much more sophisticated. The limitations inherent in clinical studies and retrospective reporting of use have become obvious; and investigators have learned to refine their hypotheses and methods to avoid attributing the effects of confounding factors exclusively to drug exposure. Overtime, methods of defining exposure have been refined and investigators often define cocaine exposure by meconium metabolites or toxicology screens.

In exposure samples, the need to control and evaluate potentially confounding factors, both pre- and postnatally, requires the recruitment and retention of large samples and the judicious interpretation of results. The advantage of having many studies on a single topic is evident in the articles in this special issue that deal with cocaine exposure.

By examining the result of all these efforts, it is easier to understand the meaning of each. In the case of cocaine exposure, the persistent lack of reliable differences between exposed and contrast groups in growth, dysmorphia and cognition, and the repeated findings associated with emotional and behavioral outcomes across multiple studies provide fairly compelling evidence for the type of risk associated with this exposure.

Although much of the literature on prenatal substance exposure has examined the impact of maternal cocaine use, drug-using women often smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol, substances with known effects on fetal and infant development Frank et al. Data from over 8, mothers and infants participating in the Maternal Lifestyles Study show that single drug use is very rare; most drug-using women are ingesting multiple substances Lester et al.

The interaction between the effects of the teratogen and the effects of the environment is probably the most interesting scientific question in the field at this time. Children from substance using homes are, in some ways, a model for understanding the development of cognitive delays and developmental psychopathology. Exposure to drugs and alcohol is one of many negative environmental influences on the children whom we study.

In many cases, substance use is a marker for substantial family dysfunction that will lead to predictably negative outcomes. In other cases, when children are able to develop in healthy ways despite their exposure to noxious factors, investigations may provide considerable insight into human resilience. The research represented by the articles in this special issue was initiated to allow both an understanding of the impact of drugs and alcohol on development and to provide scientifically valid information to practitioners and public health policy makers.

These decades of research have given the field and society at large an expanded understanding of the characteristics of exposed and affected children, as well as data that can be used to inform educational decisions, to develop standards of care in medical settings, and to provide policy makers with guidelines needed to treat women and improve outcomes for children.

Many questions remain to be investigated. For example, little is known about the consequences of pre- or postnatal exposure to alcohol or drugs on functioning during adolescence and adulthood, particularly in the context of varying environmental conditions.

Rather, we need well-conducted research to understand the nature of the long term consequences of early substance exposure on adolescent and adult functioning and to find ways to reduce negative impact. The areas of education and treatment have received very little attention. Methods for early diagnosis as well as treatment, intervention, and education are still to be created and tested. An important focus for a subsequent special issue of this journal would be methods to provide practitioners with the tools needed to identify and support affected children and their families.

Accornero , V. Behavioral outcome of preschoolers exposed prenatally to cocaine: Role of maternal behavioral health. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27 , — Bandstra , E. Longitudinal investigation of task persistence and sustained attention in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 23 6 , — Severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and child language functioning through age seven years: A longitudinal latent growth curve analysis. Beeghly , M. April 20, Journal of Pediatric Psychology , doi Behnke , M.

April 6, Outcome from a prospective, longitudinal study of prenatal cocaine use: Preschool development at three years of age. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, doi Bendersky , M. Aggression at age five as a function of prenatal exposure to cocaine, gender and environmental risk. Brown , J. Prenatal cocaine exposure: A comparison of 2-year-old children in parental and nonparental care. Child Development, 75 , — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Alcohol consumption among women who are pregnant or who might become pregnant—United States, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , 53 50 , — Chasnoff , I.

Prenatal exposure to cocaine and other drugs: Outcome at four to six years. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences , , — Frank , D. Growth, development, and behavior in early childhood following prenatal cocaine exposure: A systematic review.

Journal of the American Medical Association , 12 , — Howell , K. April 13, Prenatal alcohol exposure and ability, academic achievement and school functioning in adolescence: A longitudinal follow-up.

Jones , K. Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. Lancet , , — Lester , B. The maternal lifestyle study: Drug use by meconium toxicology and maternal self-report.

Pediatrics , 2 , — Linares , T. March 31, Mental health outcomes of cocaine exposed children at six years of age. Martin , J. Annual summary of vital statistics— Pediatrics , 3 , — The relationship of prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment to child depressive symptoms. Padgett , L. Richardson , G. Prenatal cocaine exposure: Effects on the development of school-age children. Toxicology and Teratology , 18 6 , — Schuetze , P.

March 23, The association between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and physiological regulation in four to eight week old infants: An examination of possible mediators and moderators.

Prenatal Influences on Child Health and Development

Comments on the article by Lumey and Susser. The Lumey and Susser article discusses the research on the long-term impacts of prenatal and postnatal nutrition with a focus on the psychosocial and behavioural consequences in adulthood. This is an important health and well-being issue for the general population. Inadequate nutrition in the first months of life, during pregnancy or shortly after birth, can affect the development of the brain in ways that leave traces into adulthood. The authors' interpretations are based on the literature they present. The subject has not been studied extensively, and the comparability of the findings is problematic.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As discussed in Chapter 1 , a growing body of work has significantly strengthened understanding of the factors that influence mental, emotional, and behavioral MEB development from well before a child is born through adolescence, the mechanisms through which they exert that influence, and the complex interactions among them. Nor is it news that the ratio of positive, supportive influences to negative ones is likely worse for children born into lower socioeconomic circumstances. There is, however, growing evidence of how and when these influences, which begin before conception, promote or impede positive MEB development, and how they play out across communities and generations.

In considering physical development, the specific needs for children vary by age. Strategies for supporting each age group will be outlined in Lesson Three. Understanding that infants and toddlers experience rapid physical growth while older children refine skills already attained will make it easier to meet the individual needs of children and youth in group care. This lesson provides a snapshot of development by age group. A more detailed understanding can be achieved by reading Lesson Two for each age track. While there is a natural progression when it comes to physical development, the pace of that progression can be influenced both positively and negatively by environmental and experiential factors.


Every parent hopes that his/her child will start life as a normal, healthy individual with hereditary factors, prenatal influences, and later events that affect the child after birth. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Publishing Sciences Group, chapter 1,


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Although these reported rates have declined in recent years, they may not reflect exposure early in the pregnancy before women know they are pregnant. Information from current studies demonstrates the importance of developing strategies to promote the health and development of exposed children, to implement effective prevention programs, and to avoid the unnecessary anxiety that can stigmatize mothers and children. The knowledge base regarding the effects of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse is growing, often in response to interest by scientists and the support available from federal funding sources. Currently, there is a great deal of attention being paid to the effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to tobacco and to methamphetamines. Much of the recent research on the effects of prenatal drug exposure has been conducted among young children exposed to cocaine prenatally.

Prenatal development is highly influenced by the inheritance, expression, and regulation of genes.

Influence of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth on Intellectual Functioning in School-aged Children

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The domains of child development and early learning are discussed in different terms and categorized in different ways in the various fields and disciplines that are involved in research, practice, and policy related to children from birth through age 8. To organize the discussion in this report, the committee elected to use the approach and overarching terms depicted in Figure The committee does not intend to present this as a single best set of terms or a single best categorical organization. Indeed, it is essential to recognize that the domains shown in Figure are not easily separable and that a case can be made for multiple different categorizations. Similarly, self-regulation has both cognitive and emotional dimensions.

Data are available from the UK Biobank for researchers who meet the criteria for access to confidential data. It is unclear what the contribution of prenatal versus childhood development is for adult cognitive and sensory function and age-related decline in function. We examined hearing, vision and cognitive function in adulthood according to self-reported birth weight an index of prenatal development and adult height an index of early childhood development. In statistical modelling including age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, smoking, maternal smoking and comorbid disease, adult height was positively associated with sensory and cognitive function partial correlations; pr 0.

The Woman Patient pp Cite as. While the majority of parents are granted this wish, a few are faced with loss of an infant in utero known as abortion or fetal wastage or by stillbirth, physical abnormalities detectable at birth, or developmental abnormalities detectable only as the child matures and demonstrates limitations in physical or mental growth. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide.

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Health care providers who see newcomer families have a pivotal role to play in identifying and initiating early treatment for developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities may last a lifetime but early recognition of their existence, a timely diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan can make a difference for the children and families involved. When seeing newcomer families, recognize that risk factors are cumulative. In many parts of the world, suboptimal conditions and care during pregnancy and childbirth can have a range of impacts on developmental health. Developmental disabilities in immigrant and refugee children do not always have a known cause. Common prenatal and perinatal risk factors to consider when taking a patient or family history are reviewed here.

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Старик внимательно разглядывал подозрительного посетителя. Беккер перешел чуть ли не на шепот: - Я здесь, чтобы узнать, не нужно ли вам чего-нибудь.  - Скажем, принести пару таблеток валиума. Наконец канадец опомнился. - Из консульства? - Его тон заметно смягчился.

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 Я хочу вернуться домой, - сказала блондинка.  - Не поможете. - Опоздала на самолет.

3 Comments

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