Stem Cell Research And Its Potential In Medicine Pdf

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stem cell research and its potential in medicine pdf

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Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease.

Stem cells are important for living organisms for many reasons.

Types of Stem Cells

Stem cells are the foundation for every organ and tissue in your body. There are many different types of stem cells that come from different places in the body or are formed at different times in our lives. These include embryonic stem cells that exist only at the earliest stages of development and various types of tissue-specific or adult stem cells that appear during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life.

Beyond these two critical abilities, though, stem cells vary widely in what they can and cannot do and in the circumstances under which they can and cannot do certain things. This is one of the reasons researchers use all types of stem cells in their investigations.

In normal development, the cells inside the inner cell mass will give rise to the more specialized cells that give rise to the entire body—all of our tissues and organs. However, when scientists extract the inner cell mass and grow these cells in special laboratory conditions, they retain the properties of embryonic stem cells.

These cells are incredibly valuable because they provide a renewable resource for studying normal development and disease, and for testing drugs and other therapies.

Human embryonic stem cells have been derived primarily from blastocysts created by in vitro fertilization IVF for assisted reproduction that were no longer needed.

Typically, these stem cells can generate different cell types for the specific tissue or organ in which they live. Some tissues and organs within your body contain small caches of tissue-specific stem cells whose job it is to replace cells from that tissue that are lost in normal day-to-day living or in injury, such as those in your skin, blood, and the lining of your gut.

However, study of these cells has increased our general knowledge about normal development, what changes in aging, and what happens with injury and disease. The first MSCs were discovered in the bone marrow and were shown to be capable of making bone, cartilage and fat cells. Since then, they have been grown from other tissues, such as fat and cord blood. Various MSCs are thought to have stem cell, and even immunomodulatory, properties and are being tested as treatments for a great many disorders, but there is little evidence to date that they are beneficial.

Scientists do not fully understand whether these cells are actually stem cells or what types of cells they are capable of generating. They do agree that not all MSCs are the same, and that their characteristics depend on where in the body they come from and how they are isolated and grown. IPS cells are critical tools to help scientists learn more about normal development and disease onset and progression, and they are also useful for developing and testing new drugs and therapies.

Scientists are exploring what these differences are and what they mean. For one thing, the first iPS cells were produced by using viruses to insert extra copies of genes into tissue-specific cells. Researchers are experimenting with many alternative ways to create iPS cells so that they can ultimately be used as a source of cells or tissues for medical treatments. Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ and tissue in your body.

In this section: Embryonic stem cells Tissue-specific stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know.

How can stem cells advance medicine?

Metrics details. In recent years, stem cell therapy has become a very promising and advanced scientific research topic. The development of treatment methods has evoked great expectations. This paper is a review focused on the discovery of different stem cells and the potential therapies based on these cells. The genesis of stem cells is followed by laboratory steps of controlled stem cell culturing and derivation. Quality control and teratoma formation assays are important procedures in assessing the properties of the stem cells tested.

Recently, despite a favourable voting in the Senate, President Bush used his VETO power for the first time, blocking the popular bill. European Union is also thinking on similar lines and considering such a move in the near future. Most of the cells within the human body have definite life span most cells can only divide and replace themselves between 30 and 50 times. After a cell has undergone its 50 divisions, it can divide no further and enters cellular ageing process. Thus our organs have a definite life span, given that they are composed of cells whose function eventually declines.

Stem Cell Research

Stem cells are cells with the ability to grow and differentiate into more than cell types. The differentiation ability of all stem cell types could be stimulated to obtain specialized cells that represent renewable sources of functional cells useful for cell-based therapy. The proof of functional differentiated cells needs to be investigated in more detail using both in vitro and in vivo assays including animal disease models and clinical studies. Much progress has been made in the ASCs-based therapies.

Most cells in the body are differentiated cells. These cells can only serve a specific purpose in a particular organ. For example, red blood cells are specifically designed to carry oxygen through the blood. All humans start out as only one cell. This cell is called a zygote, or a fertilized egg.

Stem Cells Applications in Regenerative Medicine and Disease Therapeutics

Stem Cell Research

Stem cells are the foundation for every organ and tissue in your body. There are many different types of stem cells that come from different places in the body or are formed at different times in our lives. These include embryonic stem cells that exist only at the earliest stages of development and various types of tissue-specific or adult stem cells that appear during fetal development and remain in our bodies throughout life. Beyond these two critical abilities, though, stem cells vary widely in what they can and cannot do and in the circumstances under which they can and cannot do certain things.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Stem cells could help medicine in three general ways: cell-based therapies, drug discovery and basic knowledge.

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Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. A potential advantage of using stem cells from an adult is that the patient's own cells could be.


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Stem cells: past, present, and future

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