Neural Correlates Of Risky Decision Making In Anxious Youth And Healthy Controls Pdf

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neural correlates of risky decision making in anxious youth and healthy controls pdf

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil , often accompanied by nervous behavior such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints , and rumination. Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry , usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. Anxiety is closely related to fear , which is a response to a real or perceived immediate threat ; anxiety involves the expectation of future threat.

The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Depression in Adolescents

Physical home environment is associated with prefrontal cortical thickness in adolescents. Developmental Science. Family focused intervention influences hippocampal-prefrontal connectivity through gains in self-regulation. Child Development. Bedtime autonomy and cellphone use influence sleep duration in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health. Tashjian, S.

Adolescence is a developmental period associated with increased health-risk behaviors and unique sensitivity to the input from the social context, paralleled by major changes in the developing brain. Peer presence increases adolescent risk taking, associated with greater reward-related activity, while parental presence decreases risk taking, associated with decreased reward-related activity and increased cognitive control. Yet the effects specific to peers and parents are still unknown. Participants completed the Yellow Light Game YLG , a computerized driving task, during which they could make safe or risky decisions, in the presence of a peer and their parent. Behavioral findings revealed no effects of social context on risk taking. At the neural level, a collection of affective, social and cognitive regions [ventral striatum VS , temporo-parietal junction TPJ , and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dlPFC ] was more active during decision-making with peers than parents.

Common and Distinct Amygdala-Function Perturbations in Depressed vs Anxious Adolescents

Adolescent depression is a major public health concern associated with severe outcomes. A lack of efficacious interventions has triggered an increase in cognitive neuropsychology research to identify relevant treatment targets for new interventions. This review summarises key neurocognitive findings in adolescent depression and explores the potential of neurocognitive markers as treatment targets in new interventions. Studies support difficulties in the voluntary deployment of attention towards and away from emotional stimuli, negative interpretation biases and overgeneralised autobiographical memories in adolescent depression; however, little evidence is given to a general decline in executive function. There is consistent evidence for abnormalities in several distributed neural networks in adolescent depression, including dysfunction in and between the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. The relationships between different cognitive biases and abnormalities in specific neural networks remain unclear. Several new experimental interventions targeting these neurocognitive markers await evaluation.

Amygdala activation to fearful faces in patients with anxiety and major depressive disorder MDD relative to healthy controls for select attention conditions. Differential amygdala activation in patients with major depressive disorder MDD and patients with anxiety during passive viewing of fearful vs other face-emotion types. Patients with MDD and those with anxiety also differed from healthy controls in left amygdala activation in this contrast. A and B, Left OFC activation to fearful faces during afraid ratings vs passive viewing fearful-afraid vs fearful-passive contrast error bars reflect standard errors showing significantly enhanced activation among patients with anxiety compared with healthy controls. A and B, Right OFC activation to fearful faces during passive viewing of fearful vs happy faces fearful-passive vs happy-passive contrast error bars reflect standard errors showing significantly enhanced activation among patients with anxiety compared with those with MDD and healthy controls.

We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants adolescents: 17—18, and young adults: 21—22 years old read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations e. Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction TPJ , bilateral middle temporal gyrus MTG , right medial prefrontal cortex, and the precuneus bilaterally; i. In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active [right anterior cingulate cortex ACC , bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC , bilateral orbitofrontal cortex], whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system ventral striatum. Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas ACC and emotional and social cognition areas temporal pole. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in ToM related regions bilateral MTG and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions pre-supplementary motor area.

Request PDF | Neural correlates of risky decision making in anxious youth and healthy controls | Background: Pediatric anxiety disorders are.

The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Depression in Adolescents

Adolescents are characterized by impulsive risky behavior, particularly in the presence of peers. We discriminated high and low risk-taking male adolescents aged 18—19 years by assessing their propensity for risky behavior and vulnerability to peer influence with personality tests, and compared structural differences in gray and white matter of the brain with voxel-based morphometry VBM and diffusion tensor imaging DTI , respectively. We also compared the brain structures according to the participants' actual risk-taking behavior in a simulated driving task with two different social conditions making up a peer competition situation. There was a discrepancy between the self-reported personality test results and risky driving behavior running through an intersection with traffic lights turning yellow, chancing a collision with another vehicle. Comparison between high and low risk-taking adolescents according to personality test results revealed no significant difference in gray matter volume and white matter integrity.


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Background Pediatric anxiety disorders are chronic and impairing PDF. Tools. Request permission · Export citation · Add to favorites · Track citation 16) and healthy controls (n = 15), performed a risky decision‐making Neural correlates of risky decision making in anxious youth and healthy controls.

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