Api Introduction To Oil And Gas Production Pdf
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The Annual Energy Outlook presents an assessment by the U.
- Corrosion problems during oil and gas production and its mitigation
- U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
- Petroleum industry
In order to ensure smooth and uninterrupted flow of oil and gas to the end users, it is imperative for the field operators, pipeline engineers, and designers to be corrosion conscious as the lines and their component fittings would undergo material degradations due to corrosion. This paper gives a comprehensive review of corrosion problems during oil and gas production and its mitigation. The chemistry of corrosion mechanism had been examined with the various types of corrosion and associated corroding agents in the oil and gas industry. Factors affecting each of the various forms of corrosion were also presented. Ways of mitigating this menace with current technology of low costs had been discussed.
Corrosion problems during oil and gas production and its mitigation
The petroleum industry , also known as the oil industry or the oil patch , includes the global processes of exploration , extraction , refining , transporting often by oil tankers and pipelines , and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline petrol. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products , including pharmaceuticals , solvents , fertilizers , pesticides , synthetic fragrances, and plastics.
The extreme monetary value of oil and its products has led to it being known as "black gold". The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream , midstream , and downstream. Upstream deals with Drilling and Production mainly.
Petroleum is vital to many industries, and is necessary for the maintenance of industrial civilization in its current configuration, making it a critical concern for many nations. The world consumes 36 billion barrels 5.
Governments such as the United States government provide a heavy public subsidy to petroleum companies , with major tax breaks at virtually every stage of oil exploration and extraction, including the costs of oil field leases and drilling equipment.
In recent years, enhanced oil recovery techniques — most notably multi-stage drilling and hydraulic fracturing "fracking" — have moved to the forefront of the industry as this new technology plays a crucial and controversial role in new methods of oil extraction. Petroleum is a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations. It consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. It is generally accepted that oil is formed mostly from the carbon rich remains of ancient plankton after exposure to heat and pressure in Earth 's crust over hundreds of millions of years.
Petroleum in an unrefined state has been utilized by humans for over years. Oil in general has been used since early human history to keep fires ablaze and in warfare. Its importance to the world economy however, evolved slowly, with whale oil being used for lighting in the 19th century and wood and coal used for heating and cooking well into the 20th century.
Even though the Industrial Revolution generated an increasing need for energy, this was initially met mainly by coal, and from other sources including whale oil. However, when it was discovered that kerosene could be extracted from crude oil and used as a lighting and heating fuel, the demand for petroleum increased greatly, and by the early twentieth century had become the most valuable commodity traded on world markets.
Imperial Russia produced 3, tons of oil in and doubled its output by mid-century. At the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russia's output of oil, almost entirely from the Apsheron Peninsula , accounted for half of the world's production and dominated international markets. In Ludvig Nobel and his Branobel company "revolutionized oil transport" by commissioning the first oil tanker and launching it on the Caspian Sea. As kerosene lamps gained popularity, the refining industry grew in the area.
But there is evidence to support Williams, not least of which is that the Drake well did not come into production until August 28, The discovery at Oil Springs touched off an oil boom which brought hundreds of speculators and workers to the area. Canada's first gusher flowing well erupted on January 16, , when local oil-man John Shaw struck oil at feet 48 m.
The first modern oil-drilling in the United States began in West Virginia and Pennsylvania in the s. Edwin Drake 's well near Titusville, Pennsylvania , typically considered [ by whom?
By the s, oil fields had been established [ by whom? The first successful oil tanker , the Zoroaster , was built in in Sweden, designed by Ludvig Nobel. It operated from Baku to Astrakhan. In the early s the Texas Company developed the first mobile steel barges for drilling in the brackish coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico.
Operation Edelweiss failed to secure the Caucasus oil-fields for the Axis military in , while the Soviet Union deprived the Wehrmacht of access to Ploesti from Cutting off the East Indies oil-supply especially via submarine campaigns considerably weakened Japan in the latter part of the war. Important developments since World War II include deep-water drilling, the introduction of the drillship , and the growth of a global shipping network for petroleum relying upon oil tankers and pipelines.
In the first offshore oil-drilling at Oil Rocks Neft Dashlari in the Caspian Sea off Azerbaijan eventually resulted in a city built on pylons. Oil spills and their cleanup have become an issue of increasing political, environmental, and economic importance.
New fields of hydrocarbon production developed in places such as Siberia, Sakhalin , Venezuela and North and West Africa. With the advent of hydraulic fracturing and other horizontal drilling techniques, shale play has seen an enormous uptick in production. Areas of shale such as the Permian Basin and Eagle-Ford have become huge hotbeds of production for the largest oil corporations in the United States. The American Petroleum Institute divides the petroleum industry into five sectors: .
The following table shows the ten largest national oil companies ranked by reserves   and by production in Most upstream work in the oil field or on an oil well is contracted out to drilling contractors and oil field service companies. Aside from the NOCs which dominate the Upstream sector, there are many international companies that have a market share. For example: . Midstream operations are sometimes classified within the downstream sector, but these operations compose a separate and discrete sector of the petroleum industry.
Midstream operations and processes include the following:. While some upstream companies carry out certain midstream operations, the midstream sector is dominated by a number of companies that specialize in these services. Midstream companies include:. Some petroleum industry operations have been responsible for water pollution through by-products of refining and oil spills. Though hydraulic fracturing has significantly increased natural gas extraction, there is some belief and evidence to support that consumable water has seen increased in methane contamination due to this gas extraction.
Hydrocarbons that comprise refined petroleum are resistant to biodegradation and have been found to remain present in contaminated soils for years. The industry is the largest industrial source of emissions of volatile organic compounds VOCs , a group of chemicals that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone smog. Pollutants include nitrogen oxides , sulphur dioxide , volatile organic compounds and heavy metals. Researchers have discovered that the petrochemical industry can produce ground-level ozone pollution at higher amounts in winter than in summer.
The greenhouse gases due to fossil fuels drive climate change. Already in , at a symposium organised by the American Petroleum Institute for the centennial of the American oil industry , the physicist Edward Teller warned then of the danger of global climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , founded by the United Nations in , concludes that human-sourced greenhouse gases are responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century.
As a result of climate change concerns, many alternative energy enthusiasts have begun using other methods of energy such as solar and wind, among others. This recent view has some petroleum enthusiasts skeptical about the true future of the industry. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the magazine, see Oil Patch Hotline. Main article: History of the petroleum industry. Top oil-producing countries .
Main article: Environmental impact of the petroleum industry. See also: Oil pollution toxicity to marine fish. See also: Air pollution. See also: Fossil fuel phase-out. Retrieved 9 October Energy Policy. Chemical Industries. CRC Press. Energy Information Administration.
Retrieved Krylov, A. Bokserman, E. CRC Press, The Caspian: Politics, Energy and Security. Routledge, The Former Soviet Union in Transition. Sharpe, Environmental Crises. Pearson Education, Harvard University Press. The Corporation of the County of Lambton. Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 30 July The North American oil industry began in Oil Springs in in less spectacular fashion. James Miller Williams, a coachmaker from Hamilton, dug into the tar-like gum beds of Enniskillen Township to find their source.
At a depth of fourteen feet, he struck oil. Williams immediately built a small refinery and began to produce illuminating oil for lamps - kerosene.
It was Williams who was able to take full advantage of the ancient resource. Not only was he astute enough to look below the surface of the gum beds to find oil and to realize its commercial potential, but the timing of his discovery was perfect. Canada West's Last Frontier. Lambton County Historical Society, , p. Hamilton Times. Archived from the original on 3 April Our correspondent writes us from the Oil Springs, under date of the 16th inst.
He says:— I have just time to mention that to-day at half past eleven o'clock, a. John Shaw, from Kingston, C.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
A summary treatment of crude oil follows. For full treatment, see petroleum , petroleum production , and petroleum refining. Crude oil is a mixture of comparatively volatile liquid hydrocarbons compounds composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon , though it also contains some nitrogen , sulfur , and oxygen. Those elements form a large variety of complex molecular structures, some of which cannot be readily identified. Regardless of variations, however, almost all crude oil ranges from 82 to 87 percent carbon by weight and 12 to 15 percent hydrogen by weight.
An introduction to oil and gas production. Håvard Devold In addition to API grade and hydrocarbons, crude is characterized for other non- wanted elements.
Copyright American Petroleum Institute. API publications necessarily address problems of a general nature. With respect to par- ticular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to warn and properly train and equip their employees, and others exposed, concerning health and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, or fed- eral laws.
Morga, B. Portland cement. The API specification discussed in this paper contains a set of physical and chemical requirements constituted specifically to cover those properties needed in the cementing of oil and gas wells It includes also a system of classifying and identifying portland cement In terms related to well-cementing operations The system provides for seven classes of portland cement to cover each basic type available to the oil and gas industry Specification values for the seven classes have been established on thickening time , strength, soundness. Use of the API specification by those who make, transfer, and purchase oil-well cements should be helpful In eliminating confusion about classifying.
Extraction and processing
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