# Deductive Inductive And Abductive Reasoning Pdf

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Theory structures and informs social work research.

During the scientific process, deductive reasoning is used to reach a logical true conclusion. Another type of reasoning, inductive, is also used. Often, people confuse deductive reasoning with inductive reasoning, and vice versa. It is important to learn the meaning of each type of reasoning so that proper logic can be identified. Deductive reasoning is a basic form of valid reasoning.

## 6.3 Inductive and deductive reasoning

A feature of research designs are the approach to reasoning that they incorporate. There are various approaches that can be taken. Three of the main ways are deduction, induction and abduction. You can do deductive reasoning while sitting in your armchair. Deductive reasoning involves inferring that if propositions A and B are both true, then this implies that C is also true. The classic example is over two thousand years old and involves the question of whether the ancient Greek philosopher Socrates was mortal. Statement A : All men are mortal.

Deductive reasoning , also deductive logic , is the process of reasoning from one or more statements premises to reach a logical conclusion. Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear , and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. Deductive reasoning "top-down logic" contrasts with inductive reasoning "bottom-up logic" : in deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse , narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion s remains. In deductive reasoning there is no epistemic uncertainty. The inductive reasoning is not the same as induction used in mathematical proofs — mathematical induction is actually a form of deductive reasoning. Deductive reasoning differs from abductive reasoning by the direction of the reasoning relative to the conditionals.

Learn the difference between the two types of reasoning and how to use them when evaluating facts and arguments. As odd as it sounds, in science, law, and many other fields, there is no such thing as proof — there are only conclusions drawn from facts and observations. Scientists cannot prove a hypothesis, but they can collect evidence that points to its being true. The question of what makes something true is more relevant than ever in this era of alternative facts and fake news. This article explores truth — what it means and how we establish it. The essence of reasoning is a search for truth. For as far back as we can imagine, philosophers have debated whether absolute truth exists.

## Deductive reasoning

When conducting qualitative research, scholars should consider the relation between data collection and analysis as well as between theory and data. There are at least two ways to relate data collection to analysis in the research process. In a linear-sequential approach , researchers first collect all data and then start to analyze. This is common in quantitative research but could also be applied in qualitative research, for instance when doing content, thematic, discursive, conversational, or phenomenological analysis after collecting all data. In contrast, an iterative approach refers to an interplay between data collection and analysis. Researchers move back and forth between data collection and analysis during this Show page numbers Download PDF.

The main difference between inductive and deductive approaches to research is that whilst a deductive approach is aimed and testing theory, an inductive approach is concerned with the generation of new theory emerging from the data. A deductive approach usually begins with a hypothesis, whilst an inductive approach will usually use research questions to narrow the scope of the study. For deductive approaches the emphasis is generally on causality, whilst for inductive approaches the aim is usually focused on exploring new phenomena or looking at previously researched phenomena from a different perspective. Inductive approaches are generally associated with qualitative research, whilst deductive approaches are more commonly associated with quantitative research. However, there are no set rules and some qualitative studies may have a deductive orientation. One specific inductive approach that is frequently referred to in research literature is grounded theory, pioneered by Glaser and Strauss. This approach necessitates the researcher beginning with a completely open mind without any preconceived ideas of what will be found.

PDF | We Examine 3 common types of reasoning: Deduction, also called logical deduction or, informally, “top-down” logic, is the process of.

## Deductive Reasoning vs. Inductive Reasoning

Reasoning is the process of using existing knowledge to draw conclusions, make predictions, or construct explanations. Three methods of reasoning are the deductive, inductive, and abductive approaches. Deductive reasoning: conclusion guaranteed Deductive reasoning starts with the assertion of a general rule and proceeds from there to a guaranteed specific conclusion. Deductive reasoning moves from the general rule to the specific application: In deductive reasoning, if the original assertions are true, then the conclusion must also be true. For example, math is deductive:.

Prescriptions regarding organization-scientific methodology are typically founded on the researcher's ability to approach perfect rationality. In a critical examination of the use of scientific reasoning deduction, induction, abduction in organization research, we seek to replace this unrealistic premise with an alternative that incorporates a more reasonable view of the cognitive capacity of the researcher. To this end, we construct a typology of descriptive, prescriptive, and normative criteria for the evaluation of organization-scientific reasoning practices. This typology addresses both cognitive limits and the diversity of research approaches in organization research.

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### Deductive, inductive and abductive approaches

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PDF | This collection is devoted to the analysis and application of abductive and inductive division of non-deductive reasoning into abduction and induction.

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