Computer Architecture And Assembly Language Notes Pdf

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Computer Architecture:. Computer architecture is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It may also be defined as the science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals.

It aims to develop a basic understanding of the building blocks of the computer system and highlights how these blocks are organized together to architect a digital computer system. Sc, B. Tech CSE, M.

Computer architecture and assembly language lecture notes pdf

In computer programming , assembly language or assembler language , [1] often abbreviated asm , is any low-level programming language in which there is a very strong correspondence between the instructions in the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Assembly language may also be called symbolic machine code. Assembly code is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler.

The conversion process is referred to as assembly , as in assembling the source code. Assembly language usually has one statement per machine instruction , but comments and statements that are assembler directives , [5] macros , [6] [1] and symbolic labels of program and memory locations are often also supported. The term "assembler" is generally attributed to Wilkes , Wheeler and Gill in their book The Preparation of Programs for an Electronic Digital Computer , [7] who, however, used the term to mean "a program that assembles another program consisting of several sections into a single program".

Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture and sometimes to an operating system. In contrast to assembly languages, most high-level programming languages are generally portable across multiple architectures but require interpreting or compiling , a much more complicated task than assembling.

Assembly language uses a mnemonic to represent each low-level machine instruction or opcode , typically also each architectural register , flag , etc. Many operations require one or more operands in order to form a complete instruction. Most assemblers permit named constants, registers, and labels for program and memory locations, and can calculate expressions for operands. Thus, the programmers are freed from tedious repetitive calculations and assembler programs are much more readable than machine code.

Depending on the architecture, these elements may also be combined for specific instructions or addressing modes using offsets or other data as well as fixed addresses.

Many assemblers offer additional mechanisms to facilitate program development, to control the assembly process, and to aid debugging. An assembler program creates object code by translating combinations of mnemonics and syntax for operations and addressing modes into their numerical equivalents. This representation typically includes an operation code " opcode " as well as other control bits and data.

The assembler also calculates constant expressions and resolves symbolic names for memory locations and other entities. Most assemblers also include macro facilities for performing textual substitution — e. Some assemblers may also be able to perform some simple types of instruction set -specific optimizations.

One concrete example of this may be the ubiquitous x86 assemblers from various vendors. Called jump-sizing , [14] most of them are able to perform jump-instruction replacements long jumps replaced by short or relative jumps in any number of passes, on request.

Others may even do simple rearrangement or insertion of instructions, such as some assemblers for RISC architectures that can help optimize a sensible instruction scheduling to exploit the CPU pipeline as efficiently as possible.

Assemblers have been available since the s, as the first step above machine language and before high-level programming languages such as Fortran , Algol , COBOL and Lisp. There have also been several classes of translators and semi-automatic code generators with properties similar to both assembly and high-level languages, with Speedcode as perhaps one of the better-known examples.

There may be several assemblers with different syntax for a particular CPU or instruction set architecture. Despite different appearances, different syntactic forms generally generate the same numeric machine code. A single assembler may also have different modes in order to support variations in syntactic forms as well as their exact semantic interpretations such as FASM -syntax, TASM -syntax, ideal mode, etc.

There are two types of assemblers based on how many passes through the source are needed how many times the assembler reads the source to produce the object file. In both cases, the assembler must be able to determine the size of each instruction on the initial passes in order to calculate the addresses of subsequent symbols.

This means that if the size of an operation referring to an operand defined later depends on the type or distance of the operand, the assembler will make a pessimistic estimate when first encountering the operation, and if necessary, pad it with one or more " no-operation " instructions in a later pass or the errata.

In an assembler with peephole optimization , addresses may be recalculated between passes to allow replacing pessimistic code with code tailored to the exact distance from the target. The original reason for the use of one-pass assemblers was memory size and speed of assembly — often a second pass would require storing the symbol table in memory to handle forward references , rewinding and rereading the program source on tape , or rereading a deck of cards or punched paper tape.

Later computers with much larger memories especially disc storage , had the space to perform all necessary processing without such re-reading.

The advantage of the multi-pass assembler is that the absence of errata makes the linking process or the program load if the assembler directly produces executable code faster. Example: in the following code snippet, a one-pass assembler would be able to determine the address of the backward reference BKWD when assembling statement S2 , but would not be able to determine the address of the forward reference FWD when assembling the branch statement S1 ; indeed, FWD may be undefined.

A two-pass assembler would determine both addresses in pass 1, so they would be known when generating code in pass 2. More sophisticated high-level assemblers provide language abstractions such as:. A program written in assembly language consists of a series of mnemonic processor instructions and meta-statements known variously as directives, pseudo-instructions, and pseudo-ops , comments and data. Assembly language instructions usually consist of an opcode mnemonic followed by a list of data, arguments or parameters.

The binary code for this instruction is followed by a 3-bit identifier for which register to use. The identifier for the AL register is , so the following machine code loads the AL register with the data This binary computer code can be made more human-readable by expressing it in hexadecimal as follows.

Here, B0 means 'Move a copy of the following value into AL , and 61 is a hexadecimal representation of the value , which is 97 in decimal. Assembly language for the family provides the mnemonic MOV an abbreviation of move for instructions such as this, so the machine code above can be written as follows in assembly language, complete with an explanatory comment if required, after the semicolon.

This is much easier to read and to remember. Other assemblers may use separate opcode mnemonics such as L for "move memory to register", ST for "move register to memory", LR for "move register to register", MVI for "move immediate operand to memory", etc. If the same mnemonic is used for different instructions, that means that the mnemonic corresponds to several different binary instruction codes, excluding data e. The [nb 2] hexadecimal form of this instruction is:. The first byte, 88h, identifies a move between a byte-sized register and either another register or memory, and the second byte, E0h, is encoded with three bit-fields to specify that both operands are registers, the source is AH , and the destination is AL.

In a case like this where the same mnemonic can represent more than one binary instruction, the assembler determines which instruction to generate by examining the operands. In the first example, the operand 61h is a valid hexadecimal numeric constant and is not a valid register name, so only the B0 instruction can be applicable. In the second example, the operand AH is a valid register name and not a valid numeric constant hexadecimal, decimal, octal, or binary , so only the 88 instruction can be applicable.

Assembly languages are always designed so that this sort of unambiguousness is universally enforced by their syntax. For example, in the Intel x86 assembly language, a hexadecimal constant must start with a numeral digit, so that the hexadecimal number 'A' equal to decimal ten would be written as 0Ah or 0AH , not AH , specifically so that it cannot appear to be the name of register AH.

The same rule also prevents ambiguity with the names of registers BH , CH , and DH , as well as with any user-defined symbol that ends with the letter H and otherwise contains only characters that are hexadecimal digits, such as the word "BEACH". Returning to the original example, while the x86 opcode B0 copies an 8-bit value into the AL register, B1 moves it into CL and B2 does so into DL.

Assembly language examples for these follow. The syntax of MOV can also be more complex as the following examples show. Transforming assembly language into machine code is the job of an assembler, and the reverse can at least partially be achieved by a disassembler. Unlike high-level languages , there is a one-to-one correspondence between many simple assembly statements and machine language instructions. However, in some cases, an assembler may provide pseudoinstructions essentially macros which expand into several machine language instructions to provide commonly needed functionality.

For example, for a machine that lacks a "branch if greater or equal" instruction, an assembler may provide a pseudoinstruction that expands to the machine's "set if less than" and "branch if zero on the result of the set instruction ". Most full-featured assemblers also provide a rich macro language discussed below which is used by vendors and programmers to generate more complex code and data sequences.

Since the information about pseudoinstructions and macros defined in the assembler environment is not present in the object program, a disassembler cannot reconstruct the macro and pseudoinstruction invocations but can only disassemble the actual machine instructions that the assembler generated from those abstract assembly-language entities.

Likewise, since comments in the assembly language source file are ignored by the assembler and have no effect on the object code it generates, a disassembler is always completely unable to recover source comments. Each computer architecture has its own machine language.

Computers differ in the number and type of operations they support, in the different sizes and numbers of registers, and in the representations of data in storage. While most general-purpose computers are able to carry out essentially the same functionality, the ways they do so differ; the corresponding assembly languages reflect these differences.

Multiple sets of mnemonics or assembly-language syntax may exist for a single instruction set, typically instantiated in different assembler programs. In these cases, the most popular one is usually that supplied by the CPU manufacturer and used in its documentation. Because Intel claimed copyright on its assembly language mnemonics on each page of their documentation published in the s and early s, at least , some companies that independently produced CPUs compatible with Intel instruction sets invented their own mnemonics.

The Zilog Z80 CPU, an enhancement of the Intel A , supports all the A instructions plus many more; Zilog invented an entirely new assembly language, not only for the new instructions but also for all of the A instructions. Like Zilog with the Z80, NEC invented new mnemonics for all of the and instructions, to avoid accusations of infringement of Intel's copyright. It is doubtful whether in practice many people who programmed the V20 and V30 actually wrote in NEC's assembly language rather than Intel's; since any two assembly languages for the same instruction set architecture are isomorphic somewhat like English and Pig Latin , there is no requirement to use a manufacturer's own published assembly language with that manufacturer's products.

There is a large degree of diversity in the way the authors of assemblers categorize statements and in the nomenclature that they use. In particular, some describe anything other than a machine mnemonic or extended mnemonic as a pseudo-operation pseudo-op. A typical assembly language consists of 3 types of instruction statements that are used to define program operations:. Instructions statements in assembly language are generally very simple, unlike those in high-level languages.

Generally, a mnemonic is a symbolic name for a single executable machine language instruction an opcode , and there is at least one opcode mnemonic defined for each machine language instruction.

Each instruction typically consists of an operation or opcode plus zero or more operands. Most instructions refer to a single value or a pair of values. Operands can be immediate value coded in the instruction itself , registers specified in the instruction or implied, or the addresses of data located elsewhere in storage.

This is determined by the underlying processor architecture: the assembler merely reflects how this architecture works. Extended mnemonics are often used to specify a combination of an opcode with a specific operand, e.

Extended mnemonics are often used to support specialized uses of instructions, often for purposes not obvious from the instruction name. For example, many CPU's do not have an explicit NOP instruction, but do have instructions that can be used for the purpose. In CPUs the instruction xchg ax , ax is used for nop , with nop being a pseudo-opcode to encode the instruction xchg ax , ax. Some disassemblers recognize this and will decode the xchg ax , ax instruction as nop.

Some assemblers also support simple built-in macro-instructions that generate two or more machine instructions. For instance, with some Z80 assemblers the instruction ld hl,bc is recognized to generate ld l,c followed by ld h,b. Mnemonics are arbitrary symbols; in the IEEE published Standard for a uniform set of mnemonics to be used by all assemblers. The standard has since been withdrawn. There are instructions used to define data elements to hold data and variables. They define the type of data, the length and the alignment of data.

These instructions can also define whether the data is available to outside programs programs assembled separately or only to the program in which the data section is defined.

Some assemblers classify these as pseudo-ops. Assembly directives, also called pseudo-opcodes, pseudo-operations or pseudo-ops, are commands given to an assembler "directing it to perform operations other than assembling instructions".

Sometimes the term pseudo-opcode is reserved for directives that generate object code, such as those that generate data. The names of pseudo-ops often start with a dot to distinguish them from machine instructions.

von neumann architecture notes pdf

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Computer Organisation and Assembly Language Programming Book — Subject Similar books, Important topics, Edition, etc everything was mentioned in this article for the Year 1 scholar to refer to. And, also we mentioned an overview of the subject below. Computer Organisation and Assembly Language Programming mainly focused on the lower level computer programming. The below are the unit wise titles of the computer organization assembly language programming subject in the semester — 1 Master of the Computer Application. Sc Books Download. Complex Analysis Books — M. Sc Notes Download.


Processor architecture. ▷ Memory. ▷ Memory mapping. ▷ Execution flow. ▷ Object file formats. ▷ Assembly programming. ▷ Focus on x ▷ Focus on RISC.


Computer System Architecture Notes PDF | CSA Notes PDF

In computer programming , assembly language or assembler language , [1] often abbreviated asm , is any low-level programming language in which there is a very strong correspondence between the instructions in the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Assembly language may also be called symbolic machine code. Assembly code is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler.

computer organization and architecture notes pdf

Lecture Notes on Computer Architecture. EndSem Syllabus:. Control unit design: Hardwired and micro-programmed design approaches.

Assembly language

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What is computer architecture system ?

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    Von Neumann architecture is similar to the Harvard architecture except it uses a single bus to perform both instruction fetches and data transfers, so the operations must be scheduled.

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    translated by assembler into machine language instructions (binary code) that NASM - Netwide Assembler - is assembler and for x86 architecture Notes: backslash (\) uses as the line continuation character: if a line ends with backslash​.

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