Medicinal Plants And Herbs Pdf
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This is an alphabetical list of plants used in herbalism. The ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are possibly used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi, and herbivorous mammals is called herbal medicine.
Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety.
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Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines.
Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants.
Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life.
Ever since ancient times, in search for rescue for their disease, the people looked for drugs in nature. Until the advent of iatrochemistry in 16th century, plants had been the source of treatment and prophylaxis.
It comprised 12 recipes for drug preparation referring to over various plants, some of them alkaloid such as poppy, henbane, and mandrake. The Indian holy books Vedas mention treatment with plants, which are abundant in that country. Numerous spice plants used even today originate from India: nutmeg, pepper, clove, etc. The Ebers Papyrus, written circa BC, represents a collection of proscriptions referring to plant species and drugs used for therapy such as pomegranate, castor oil plant, aloe, senna, garlic, onion, fig, willow, coriander, juniper, common centaury, etc.
According to data from the Bible and the holy Jewish book the Talmud, during various rituals accompanying a treatment, aromatic plants were utilized such as myrtle and incense. Some of them were given the names after mythological characters from these epics; for instance, Elecampane Inula helenium L.
Asteraceae was named in honor of Elena, who was the centre of the Trojan War. The works of Hippocrates — BC contain medicinal plants classified by physiological action: Wormwood and common centaury Centaurium umbellatum Gilib were applied against fever; garlic against intestine parasites; opium, henbane, deadly nightshade, and mandrake were used as narcotics; fragrant hellebore and haselwort as emetics; sea onion, celery, parsley, asparagus, and garlic as diuretics; oak and pomegranate as adstringents.
In the books, he generated a classification of more than medicinal plants known at the time. In the description of the plant toxic action, Theophrast underscored the important feature for humans to become accustomed to them by a gradual increase of the doses. In addition to the plant description, the names in other languages coupled with the localities where they occur or are grown are provided. The plants having mild effect are dominant, but there are also references to those containing alkaloid or other matter with strong effect fragrant hellebore, false hellebore, poppy, buttercup, jimson weed, henbane, deadly nightshade.
Camomile Matricaria recucita L. Owing to its mild carminative action, it is particularly appropriate for usage with children. Dioscorides differentiated between a number of species from the genus Mentha , which were grown and used to relieve headache and stomach ache. The bulbs of sea onion and parsley were utilized as diuretics, oak bark was used for gynaecological purposes, while white willow was used as an antipyretic.
As maintained by Dioscorides, Scillae bulbus was also applied as an expectorant, cardiac stimulant, and antihydrotic. Galen also introduced several new plant drugs in therapy that Dioscorides had not described, for instance, Uvae ursi folium , used as an uroantiseptic and a mild diuretic even in this day and age. In the seventh century AD the Slavic people used Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Iris germanica , and Mentha viridis in cosmetics, Alium sativum as a remedy and Veratrum album, Cucumis sativus, Urtica dioica, Achilea millefolium, Artemisia maritime L.
In the Middle Ages, the skills of healing, cultivation of medicinal plants, and preparation of drugs moved to monasteries. Therapy was based on 16 medicinal plants, which the physicians-monks commonly grew within the monasteries as follows: sage, anise, mint, Greek seed, savory, tansy, etc. Around different plants were quoted, which have been used till present days such as sage, sea onion, iris, mint, common centaury, poppy, marsh mallow, etc.
The great emperor especially appreciated the sage Salvia officinalis L. Even today sage is a mandatory plant in all Catholic monasteries. The Arabs introduced numerous new plants in pharmacotherapy, mostly from India, a country they used to have trade relations with, whereas the majority of the plants were with real medicinal value, and they have persisted in all pharmacopoeias in the world till today.
The Arabs used aloe, deadly nightshade, henbane, coffee, ginger, strychnos, saffron, curcuma, pepper, cinnamon, rheum, senna, and so forth. Certain drugs with strong action were replaced by drugs with mild action, for instance, Sennae folium was used as a mild laxative, compared to the purgatives Heleborus odorus and Euphorbium used until then.
They referred to the Nikeian pharmacological codex dating from year , and transferred his extensive knowledge on medicinal plants to his disciples and via them to the masses. Marco Polo's journeys in tropical Asia, China, and Persia, the discovery of America , and Vasco De Gama's journeys to India , resulted in many medicinal plants being brought into Europe.
Botanical gardens emerged all over Europe, and attempts were made for cultivation of domestic medicinal plants and of the ones imported from the old and the new world. With the discovery of America, materia medica was enriched with a large number of new medicinal plants: Cinchona, Ipecacuanha, Cacao, Ratanhia, Lobelia, Jalapa, Podophylum, Senega, Vanilla, Mate , tobacco, red pepper, etc. Quinine bark rapidly overwhelmed England, France, and Germany despite the fact that there was many an opponent to its use among distinguished physicians—members of a range of academies.
Paracelsus was one of the proponents of chemically prepared drugs out of raw plants and mineral substances; nonetheless, he was a firm believer that the collection of those substances ought to be astrologically determined.
According to this belief, God designated his own sign on the healing substances, which indicated their application for certain diseases. For example, the haselwort is reminiscent of the liver; thus, it must be beneficial for liver diseases; St John's wort Hypericum perforatum L. While the old peoples used medicinal plants primarily as simple pharmaceutical forms—infusions, decoctions and macerations—in the Middle Ages, and in particular between 16th and 18th centuries, the demand for compound drugs was increasing.
The compound drugs comprised medicinal plants along with drugs of animal and plant origin. If the drug the theriac was produced from a number of medicinal plants, rare animals, and minerals, it was highly valued and sold expensively. In 18th century, in his work Species Plantarium , Linnaeus provided a brief description and classification of the species described until then. The species were described and named without taking into consideration whether some of them had previously been described somewhere.
For the naming, a polynomial system was employed where the first word denoted the genus while the remaining polynomial phrase explained other features of the plant e. Linnaeus altered the naming system into a binominal one. The name of each species consisted of the genus name, with an initial capital letter, and the species name, with an initial small letter. Early 19th century was a turning point in the knowledge and use of medicinal plants. The discovery, substantiation, and isolation of alkaloids from poppy , ipecacuanha , strychnos , quinine , pomegranate , and other plants, then the isolation of glycosides, marked the beginning of scientific pharmacy.
With the upgrading of the chemical methods, other active substances from medicinal plants were also discovered such as tannins, saponosides, etheric oils, vitamins, hormones, etc.
In late 19th and early 20th centuries, there was a great danger of elimination of medicinal plants from therapy. Many authors wrote that drugs obtained from them had many shortcomings due to the destructive action of enzymes, which cause fundamental changes during the process of medicinal plants drying, i.
In 19th century, therapeutics, alkaloids, and glycosides isolated in pure form were increasingly supplanting the drugs from which they had been isolated. Nevertheless, it was soon ascertained that although the action of pure alkaloids was faster, the action of alkaloid drugs was full and long-lasting.
In early 20th century, stabilization methods for fresh medicinal plants were proposed, especially the ones with labile medicinal components. Besides, much effort was invested in study of the conditions of manufacturing and cultivation of medicinal plants. On account of chemical, physiological, and clinical studies, numerous forgotten plants and drugs obtained thereof were restored to pharmacy: Aconitum, Punica granatum, Hyosciamus, Stramonium, Secale cornutum, Filix mas, Opium, Styrax, Colchicum, Ricinus , and so forth.
The active components of medicinal plants are a product of the natural, most seamless laboratory. The human organism accepts the drug obtained from them best in view of the fact that man is an integral part of nature. There are countries the United Kingdom,[ 32 ] Russia, Germany[ 33 ] that have separate herbal pharmacopoeias. Yet, in practice, a much higher number of unofficial drugs are always used.
Their application is grounded on the experiences of popular medicine traditional or popular medicine or on the new scientific research and experimental results conventional medicine.
Many medicinal plants are applied through self-medication or at the recommendation of a physician or pharmacist. They are used independently or in combination with synthetic drugs complementary medicine. For the sake of adequate and successfully applied therapy, knowledge of the precise diagnosis of the illness as well as of medicinal plants, i. Plant drugs and phytopreparations, most commonly with defined active components, verified action and, sometimes, therapeutic efficiency, are applied as therapeutic means.
In the major European producer and consumer of herbal preparations—Germany, rational phytotherapy is employed, based on applications of preparations whose efficiency depends on the applied dose and identified active components, and their efficiency has been corroborated by experimental and clinical tests.
Those preparations have been manufactured from standardized plant drug extracts, and they adhere to all requirements for pharmaceutical quality of drugs. With the new Law on Drugs and Medical Devices dated September [ 34 ] and enacted in the Republic of Macedonia, dry or sometimes fresh parts of medicinal plants herbal substances may be used for preparation of herbal drugs, herbal processed products, and traditional herbal drugs.
Herbal substances may also be utilized for manufacture of homeopathic drugs, which are stipulated in the current law, too. Since time immemorial people have tried to find medications to alleviate pain and cure different illnesses. In every period, every successive century from the development of humankind and advanced civilizations, the healing properties of certain medicinal plants were identified, noted, and conveyed to the successive generations.
The benefits of one society were passed on to another, which upgraded the old properties, discovered new ones, till present days. The continuous and perpetual people's interest in medicinal plants has brought about today's modern and sophisticated fashion of their processing and usage. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Pharmacogn Rev v. Pharmacogn Rev.
Biljana Bauer Petrovska. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Prof. E-mail: km. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. Keywords: History, medicinal plants, plant drugs, usage.
Stojanoski N. Development of health culture in Veles and its region from the past to the end of the 20 th century. Veles: Society of science and art. Kelly K. History of medicine. New York: Facts on file; Bottcher H. Miracle drugs. Zagreb: Zora;
Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinal plants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life. Ever since ancient times, in search for rescue for their disease, the people looked for drugs in nature. Until the advent of iatrochemistry in 16th century, plants had been the source of treatment and prophylaxis.
Here are some common medicinal herbs. Most herbs have not been completely tested to see how well they work or to see if they interact with other herbs, supplements, medicines, or foods. Products added to herbal preparations may also cause interactions. Considered by some to be a cure-all, chamomile is commonly used in the U. It is used in Europe for wound healing and to reduce inflammation or swelling. Few studies have looked at how well it works for any condition. Chamomile is used as a tea or applied as a compress.
essential drugs are extracted from medicinal plants, harnessing its natural properties of healing. Increasingly, more people are turning to herbal remedies.
List of plants used in herbalism
Medicinal plants , also called medicinal herbs , have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times. Plants synthesise hundreds of chemical compounds for functions including defence against insects , fungi , diseases , and herbivorous mammals. Numerous phytochemicals with potential or established biological activity have been identified. However, since a single plant contains widely diverse phytochemicals, the effects of using a whole plant as medicine are uncertain. Further, the phytochemical content and pharmacological actions, if any, of many plants having medicinal potential remain unassessed by rigorous scientific research to define efficacy and safety.
Теперь крышку не поднять изнутри. Подсобка компьютера надежно закрыта. Ни он, ни Сьюзан не услышали тихих шагов в направлении Третьего узла. ГЛАВА 60 По зеркальному коридору Двухцветный отправился с наружной террасы в танцевальный зал.
Неужели. - Да. После того как я вскрыл алгоритм Попрыгунчика, он написал мне, что мы с ним братья по борьбе за неприкосновенность частной переписки. Сьюзан не могла поверить своим ушам.
- Мидж торопливо пересказала все, что они обнаружили с Бринкерхоффом. - Вы звонили Стратмору. - Да. Он уверяет, что в шифровалке полный порядок.
- У него был врожденный порок сердца. - Никогда об этом не слышала. - Так записано в его медицинской карточке. Он не очень-то об этом распространялся. Сьюзан трудно было поверить в такое удачное совпадение. - Его погубило слабое сердце - вот так .
Да, да, - сказал он, - читайте эту благословенную надпись. Сьюзан стояла рядом, у нее подгибались колени и пылали щеки. Все в комнате оставили свои занятия и смотрели на огромный экран и на Дэвида Беккера. Профессор вертел кольцо в пальцах и изучал надпись. - Читайте медленно и точно! - приказал Джабба.
Джабба нередко прибегал к ВР, что в компьютерных кругах означало виртуальная реальность, но в АНБ это сокращение имело несколько иной смысл - визуальная репрезентация. В мире технических служащих и политиков, имеющих чрезвычайно разные уровни понимания, визуальная репрезентация нередко была единственным способом что-либо доказать: взмывающая вверх кривая производит куда более сильное впечатление, чем целые тома рассуждений. Джабба понимал, что ВР текущего кризиса со всей наглядностью объяснит то, что он хотел сказать. - ВР! - крикнула Соши, усаживаясь за компьютер в задней части комнаты. На стене ожила связанная с компьютером диаграмма.
Скажите, что вы согласны на его условия. Нам нужен этот шифр-убийца, или все здесь провалится сквозь землю. Все стояли не шелохнувшись.
Какая разница? - огрызнулся светловолосый. - Позвольте вам сразу кое-что объяснить, - сказал директор. Секунду спустя оба, залившись краской, делали доклад директору Агентства национальной безопасности. - Д-директор, - заикаясь выдавил светловолосый. - Я - агент Колиандер.
Кнопка на полу привела ее в движение, и дверь, издав шипящий звук, отъехала в сторону. Чатрукьян ввалился в комнату. - Коммандер… сэр, я… извините за беспокойство, но монитор… я запустил антивирус и… - Фил, Фил, - нехарактерным для него ласковым тоном сказал Стратмор.
На высокой рабочей платформе-подиуме в центре комнаты возвышался Джабба, как король, отдающий распоряжения своим подданным. На экране за его спиной светилось сообщение, уже хорошо знакомое Сьюзан. Текст, набранный крупным шрифтом, точно на афише, зловеще взывал прямо над его головой: ТЕПЕРЬ ВАС МОЖЕТ СПАСТИ ТОЛЬКО ПРАВДА ВВЕДИТЕ КЛЮЧ_____ Словно в кошмарном сне Сьюзан шла вслед за Фонтейном к подиуму. Весь мир для нее превратился в одно смутное, медленно перемещающееся пятно. Увидев их, Джабба сразу превратился в разъяренного быка: - Я не зря создал систему фильтров.
Он профессор, - поправила его Сьюзан и тут же пожалела об .
Любой шифр можно взломать - так гласит принцип Бергофского. Она чувствовала себя атеистом, лицом к лицу столкнувшимся с Господом Богом. - Если этот шифр станет общедоступным, - прошептала она, - криптография превратится в мертвую науку. Стратмор кивнул: - Это наименьшая из наших проблем.
Она отвернулась. Дэвид терпеливо ждал. - Сьюзан Флетчер, я люблю. Будьте моей женой.
Так не пойдет! - рявкнул Стратмор, - Мне нужен ключ. - У меня нет никакого ключа. - Хватит врать! - крикнул Стратмор. - Где. Хейл сдавил горло Сьюзан.