Direct And Circumstantial Evidence Pdf

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Circumstantial evidence , in law , evidence not drawn from direct observation of a fact in issue. If a witness testifies that he saw a defendant fire a bullet into the body of a person who then died, this is direct testimony of material facts in murder, and the only question is whether the witness is telling the truth. If, however, the witness is able to testify only that he heard the shot and that he arrived on the scene seconds later to see the accused standing over the corpse with a smoking pistol in his hand, the evidence is circumstantial; the accused may have been shooting at the escaping killer or merely have been a bystander who picked up the weapon after the killer had dropped it.

Circumstantial evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—such as a fingerprint at the scene of a crime. By contrast, direct evidence supports the truth of an assertion directly—i. On its own, circumstantial evidence allows for more than one explanation. Different pieces of circumstantial evidence may be required, so that each corroborates the conclusions drawn from the others. Together, they may more strongly support one particular inference over another.

Circumstantial evidence

Evidence can be broadly divided into two sub- categories, direct and indirect circumstantial evidence. Direct evidence is evidence which explicitly establishes a fact or proves any assertions made by the party.

Direct evidence does not require supplementation and does not require interference to form a connection between various facts. Illustration : A saw B shoot C in a park, subsequently C died. A is an eye witness of murder being committed. A being an eye witness to a crime would amount to direct evidence. In India, the term circumstantial evidence was first used by Sir James Stephen, stating circumstantial evidence to be facts that are relevant to the other fact, whose existence can prove by the existence of other fact.

Circumstantial evidence, also known as indirect evidence, is an unrelated chain of events which when put together formulates circumstances leading to the commission of the crime and can be used to derive a conclusion.

Circumstantial evidence is supported by a significant amount of corroboration. Convictions if based on circumstantial evidence require an unbreakable link between the criminal and the crime. An example of circumstantial evidence would be, if police retrieves stolen goods from the house of a suspect, although it establishes that the suspect has stolen the good but does not necessarily establish guilty or the fact that he must have stolen the goods.

Recovery of goods in the house of a suspect is a circumstantial evidence as the goods might be placed there by someone else, thus not establishing complete guilt but forming a chain of events. This would shift the burden of proof on the suspect to establish his innocence.

In the case of Holland v. United States , the US Supreme Court concluded, that fundamentally there is no intrinsic difference between direct evidence and circumstantial evidence. In the case of Ashok Kumar v. State of Madhya Pradesh , [vii] the Supreme Court held that for circumstantial evidence to sustain conviction, the chain of events should be complete and should establish the guilt of the accused without probability of any other alternative. Further, the evidence should be cogently and firmly established.

Circumstantial evidence can be sole basis for a conviction, if circumstances establish the chain of events leading to the guilt of the accused and commission of the crime without other possibilities. State Nct Of Delhi , [xiii] the court awarded him life imprisonment for the murder of Jessica Lal, on the grounds of circumstantial evidence.

The conduct of the accused after the incident absconding , ballistic report, presence at the scene of crime established by various testimonies and the circumstantial evidence connecting the vehicle and the cartridges during the commission of crime formed a chain of impenetrable evidence pointing towards the guilt of the accused.

There is no inherent requirement to provide proof of motive, if the link between the accused and commission of the offence cannot be broken, it is immaterial to establish motive. Section of the Indian Evidence Act, [xix] which states when a fact is within the knowledge of a person, the burden is upon him to establish his innocence.

Illustration — Body of B was found in the house of A. The onus is upon A to establish that even know body of the deceased was recovered from his house, his involvement in the crime is negligible.

The inmates of the house are also required to provide an explanation. If the defendant fails to provide a viable explanation and fails to establish his innocence, this would form a chain of circumstantial evidence establishing the guilt of the accused.

Further, the body of the deceased was found in the river which was within the knowledge of the accused. Conduct of the accused plays a vital role in corroborating or establishing circumstantial evidence.

Conduct of the accused which is unnatural and abnormal, such as absconding, inability to provide explanation, inability to disclose location during the commission of offence, providing false alibis, secretive cremation of death body, [xxii] which destroys the presumption of innocence is a relevant factor in establishing guilt and building the chain of events. Illustration — After the murder of B, the prime accused C went out of the state and subsequently disappeared to avoid arrest.

The conduct of C is inconsistent with the conduct of an innocent man. Thus, increasing the presumption of guilt. The conduct of the in-laws and the husband if established as cruel and inhumane, the circumstances surrounding the suicide of the deceased can lead to conviction. In the case where, the in-laws constantly ill-treated the daughter —in-law and the husband was extremely abusive towards her, till the point she committed suicide.

The circumstances prompting her to commit suicide, when established lead to the conviction of the accused. Circumstantial Evidence also understood as indirect evidence cannot be assumed to be inferior to direct evidence.

If the aforesaid conditions are fulfilled, conviction can be solely based on circumstantial evidence without direct evidence. Circumstantial requires a certain level of corroboration which can be established through the conduct of the accused and surrounding circumstance. The onus is upon the judiciary to critically analyze the evidence. Circumstantial Evidence is applied both in civil and criminal matters, however primarily in criminal matters.

That in a case depending largely upon circumstantial evidence, there is always a danger that conjecture or suspicion may take the place of legal proof. The court must satisfy itself that various circumstances in the chain of events must be such as to rule out a reasonable likelihood of the innocence of the accused.

If the chain is broken, none of the other circumstances can be relied upon to establish the guilt of the accused. Opinion of an expert, handwriting, finger print, DNA test analysis, witness, discovery of an object connecting to the offence among others are used as corroboration.

Judiciary has not given any conclusive answer to this question both the evidences, if they fulfill their respective said conditions are considered strong evidences capable of leading to conviction, however in circumstantial evidence the precautions taken by the prosecution and the Judges is higher. United States, , U. Chenga Reddy v. State of A. P, 10 SCC State, , 4 SCC Satish, 3 SCC State, , 9 SCC State of W. State of Bihar, 4 SCC Sign in. Log into your account.

Forgot your password? Privacy Policy. Password recovery. Recover your password. Tuesday, March 9, Get help. Law Times Journal. Articles Indian Evidence Act. Burden of proving exception and presumption of innocence under Evidence Law. Dying Declaration. Stay Connected. How to start company in India? Modified date: October 3, What to do if a government official asks for a bribe? Modified date: October 12, Difference between Review and Appeal Modified date: March 8, What are the laws in India against adulteration of food?

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CALCRIM No. 223. Direct and Circumstantial Evidence: Defined

Evidence can be broadly divided into two sub- categories, direct and indirect circumstantial evidence. Direct evidence is evidence which explicitly establishes a fact or proves any assertions made by the party. Direct evidence does not require supplementation and does not require interference to form a connection between various facts. Illustration : A saw B shoot C in a park, subsequently C died. A is an eye witness of murder being committed. A being an eye witness to a crime would amount to direct evidence.

ГЛАВА 60 По зеркальному коридору Двухцветный отправился с наружной террасы в танцевальный зал. Остановившись, чтобы посмотреть на свое отражение в зеркале, он почувствовал, что за спиной у него возникла какая-то фигура. Он повернулся, но было уже поздно. Чьи-то стальные руки прижали его лицо к стеклу. Панк попытался высвободиться и повернуться. - Эдуардо.

Circumstantial Evidence in India

И при этом подбрасывает подсказки, которые нелегко распознать. - Абсурд! - отрезал Джабба.  - Танкадо оставил нам только один выход-признать существование ТРАНСТЕКСТА.

Паника заставила Сьюзан действовать. У нее резко запершило в горле, и в поисках выхода она бросилась к двери. Переступив порог, она вовремя успела ухватиться за дверную раму и лишь благодаря этому удержалась на ногах: лестница исчезла, превратившись в искореженный раскаленный металл. Сьюзан в ужасе оглядела шифровалку, превратившуюся в море огня. Расплавленные остатки миллионов кремниевых чипов извергались из ТРАНСТЕКСТА подобно вулканической лаве, густой едкий дым поднимался кверху.

Боже. Такой жирный.

Steps in a Trial

Беккер рванулся влево, в другую улочку. Он слышал собственный крик о помощи, но, кроме стука ботинок сзади и учащенного дыхания, утренняя тишина не нарушалась ничем. Беккер почувствовал жжение в боку. Наверное, за ним тянется красный след на белых камнях. Он искал глазами открытую дверь или ворота - любой выход из этого бесконечного каньона, - но ничего не .

Но Сьюзан тут же сообразила, что могла быть еще одна причина отключения Следопыта. Внутренние ошибки программы не являлись единственными причинами сбоя, потому что иногда в действие вступали внешние силы - скачки напряжения, попавшие на платы частички пыли, повреждение проводов. Поскольку за техникой Третьего узла следили самым тщательным образом, она даже не рассматривала такую возможность. Сьюзан встала и быстро подошла к громадному книжному шкафу с техническими руководствами, взяла с полки справочник с прошитым проволочной спиралью корешком и принялась его листать. Она нашла то, что искала, вернулась со справочником к своему терминалу, ввела несколько команд и подождала, пока компьютер проверит список команд, отданных за последние три часа. Сьюзан надеялась обнаружить внешнее воздействие - команду отключения, вызванную сбоем электропитания или дефектным чипом.

Нужно выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ.

Это кошмар наяву. Я понимаю, ты расстроена из-за Дэвида. Я не хотел, чтобы ты узнала об этом. Я был уверен, что он тебе все рассказал. Сьюзан ощутила угрызения совести.

Он засмеялся. Ведь пилот может радировать Стратмору. Усмехнувшись, Беккер еще раз посмотрелся в зеркало и поправил узел галстука. Он уже собрался идти, как что-то в зеркале бросилось ему в. Он повернулся: из полуоткрытой двери в кабинку торчала сумка Меган.

 А кто же еще! - ответил тот с гордостью.  - Хочу его запатентовать. - Как торговую марку? - Беккер смотрел на него изумленно.

Тремя этажами ниже дрожали и гудели резервные генераторы. Сьюзан знала, что где-то на дне этого погруженного в туман подземелья есть рубильник. Кроме того, она понимала, что времени почти не оставалось. Стратмор сидел наверху с береттой в руке.

Кто-то записал его, и я подумал, что это гостиница. Я здесь проездом, из Бургоса. Прошу прощения за беспокойство, доброй вам но… - Espere.

Сьюзан застыла в полутора метрах от экрана, ошеломленная увиденным, и все называла имя человека, которого любила. ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота. Я умер.

 - С Танкадо. Ты знала об. Сьюзан посмотрела на него, стараясь не показать свое изумление. - Неужели.

Плутоний впервые был открыт… - Число, - напомнил Джабба.  - Нам нужно число.


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    You may, of course, have to determine the genuineness of the document or object. Santos v. Providence, et al. CVS. Page 2. Circumstantial evidence is the.