Basics Of Social Research Qualitative And Quantitative Approaches Pdf

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What is Qualitative in Qualitative Research

Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan. Social research methodologies can be classified as quantitative and qualitative. While methods may be classified as quantitative or qualitative, most methods contain elements of both. For example, qualitative data analysis often involves a fairly structured approach to coding the raw data into systematic information, and quantifying intercoder reliability.

Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena: from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agent's social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents.

Methods rooted in classical sociology and statistics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science , media studies , program evaluation and market research.

Social scientists are divided into camps of support for particular research techniques. These disputes relate to the historical core of social theory positivism and antipositivism ; structure and agency. While very different in many aspects, both qualitative and quantitative approaches involve a systematic interaction between theory and data. For example, a researcher concerned with drawing a statistical generalization across an entire population may administer a survey questionnaire to a representative sample population.

By contrast, a researcher who seeks full contextual understanding of an individuals' social actions may choose ethnographic participant observation or open-ended interviews.

Studies will commonly combine, or triangulate , quantitative and qualitative methods as part of a multi-strategy design. Typically a population is very large, making a census or a complete enumeration of all the values in that population infeasible. A sample thus forms a manageable subset of a population. In positivist research, statistics derived from a sample are analysed in order to draw inferences regarding the population as a whole.

The process of collecting information from a sample is referred to as sampling. Sampling is quicker and cheaper than a complete census of a population. Social research is based on logic and empirical observations.

Charles C. Ragin writes in his Constructing Social Research book that "Social research involved the interaction between ideas and evidence. Ideas help social researchers make sense of evidence, and researchers use evidence to extend, revise and test ideas.

It should never lead or be mistaken with philosophy or belief. Social research aims to find social patterns of regularity in social life and usually deals with social groups aggregates of individuals , not individuals themselves although science of psychology is an exception here.

Research can also be divided into pure research and applied research. Pure research has no application on real life, whereas applied research attempts to influence the real world.

There are no laws in social science that parallel the laws in natural science. A law in social science is a universal generalization about a class of facts. A fact is an observed phenomenon , and observation means it has been seen, heard or otherwise experienced by researcher.

A theory is a systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of social life. Concepts are the basic building blocks of theory and are abstract elements representing classes of phenomena.

Axioms or postulates are basic assertions assumed to be true. Propositions are conclusions drawn about the relationships among concepts, based on analysis of axioms. Hypotheses are specified expectations about empirical reality derived from propositions. Social research involves testing these hypotheses to see if they are true.

Social research involves creating a theory, operationalization measurement of variables and observation actual collection of data to test hypothesized relationship. Social theories are written in the language of variables, in other words, theories describe logical relationships between variables. Variables are logical sets of attributes, with people being the "carriers" of those variables for example, gender can be a variable with two attributes: male and female.

Variables are also divided into independent variables data that influences the dependent variables which scientists are trying to explain. For example, in a study of how different dosages of a drug are related to the severity of symptoms of a disease, a measure of the severity of the symptoms of the disease is a dependent variable and the administration of the drug in specified doses is the independent variable.

Researchers will compare the different values of the dependent variable severity of the symptoms and attempt to draw conclusions. When social scientists speak of "good research" the guidelines refer to how the science is mentioned and understood. It does not refer to how what the results are but how they are figured. Glenn Firebaugh summarizes the principles for good research in his book Seven Rules for Social Research. The first rule is that "There should be the possibility of surprise in social research.

In addition, good research will "look for differences that make a difference" Rule 2 and "build in reality checks" Rule 3. Rule 4 advises researchers to replicate, that is, "to see if identical analyses yield similar results for different samples of people" p.

The next two rules urge researchers to "compare like with like" Rule 5 and to "study change" Rule 6 ; these two rules are especially important when researchers want to estimate the effect of one variable on another e. The final rule, "Let method be the servant, not the master," reminds researchers that methods are the means, not the end, of social research; it is critical from the outset to fit the research design to the research issue, rather than the other way around.

Explanations in social theories can be idiographic or nomothetic. An idiographic approach to an explanation is one where the scientists seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event, i.

Nomothetic explanations tend to be more general with scientists trying to identify a few causal factors that impact a wide class of conditions or events. For example, when dealing with the problem of how people choose a job, idiographic explanation would be to list all possible reasons why a given person or group chooses a given job, while nomothetic explanation would try to find factors that determine why job applicants in general choose a given job.

Research in science and in social science is a long, slow and difficult process that sometimes produces false results because of methodological weaknesses and in rare cases because of fraud, so that reliance on any one study is inadvisable. The ethics of social research are shared with those of medical research.

In the United States, these are formalized by the Belmont report as:. The principle of respect for persons holds that a individuals should be respected as autonomous agents capable of making their own decisions, and that b subjects with diminished autonomy deserve special considerations. The principle of beneficence holds that a the subjects of research should be protected from harm, and, b the research should bring tangible benefits to society.

By this definition, research with no scientific merit is automatically considered unethical. The principle of justice states the benefits of research should be distributed fairly.

The definition of fairness used is case-dependent, varying between " 1 to each person an equal share, 2 to each person according to individual need, 3 to each person according to individual effort, 4 to each person according to societal contribution, and 5 to each person according to merit.

The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in , [6] [7] while some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to with the publication of John Graunt 's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality. While Durkheim rejected much of the detail of Auguste Comte 's philosophy, he retained and refined its method, maintaining that the social sciences are a logical continuation of the natural ones into the realm of human activity, and insisting that they may retain the same objectivity, rationalism, and approach to causality.

What has been called our positivism is but a consequence of this rationalism. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide , a case study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy.

By carefully examining suicide statistics in different police districts, he attempted to demonstrate that Catholic communities have a lower suicide rate than that of Protestants, something he attributed to social as opposed to individual or psychological causes. He developed the notion of objective suis generis " social facts " to delineate a unique empirical object for the science of sociology to study. For Durkheim, sociology could be described as the "science of institutions , their genesis and their functioning".

In the early 20th century innovation in survey methodology were developed that are still dominant. In , the psychologist Louis Leon Thurstone developed a method to select and score multiple items with which to measure complex ideas, such as attitudes towards religion.

In , the psychologist Rensis Likert developed the Likert scale where participants rate their agreement with statement using five options from totally disagree to totally agree. Likert like scales remain the most frequently used items in survey. In the midth century there was a general—but not universal—trend for American sociology to be more scientific in nature, due to the prominence at that time of action theory and other system-theoretical approaches.

Robert K. Merton released his Social Theory and Social Structure By the turn of the s, sociological research was increasingly employed as a tool by governments and businesses worldwide. Sociologists developed new types of quantitative and qualitative research methods.

Paul Lazarsfeld founded Columbia University 's Bureau of Applied Social Research , where he exerted a tremendous influence over the techniques and the organization of social research. His many contributions to sociological method have earned him the title of the "founder of modern empirical sociology".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan. For the journal, see Social Research journal. For the journal, see Sociological Methodology. List of academic fields. Research design. Research proposal Research question Writing Argument Referencing. Research strategy. Interdisciplinary Multimethodology Qualitative Quantitative. Further information: Human subject research.

Quantitative methods Cluster analysis Correlation and association Longitudinal study Multivariate statistics Regression analysis Social network analysis Social sequence analysis Surveys and questionnaire Structural equation modeling Survey research Quantitative marketing research Qualitative methods Archival research Analytic induction Case study Content analysis Ethnography Focus group Historical method Life history Morphological analysis Most significant change technique Participant observation Semi-structured interview Structured interview Textual analysis Unstructured interview Mixed methods Delphi method Ladder interview Q methodology Repertory grid Triangulation social science.

Society portal. Analytic frame Behavioural science Cognitive science Criminology Engaged theory History of social science History of sociology Scale social sciences Social psychology Unobtrusive measures. Module 3. See Resources. Bradley; Leslie A. Curry; Kelly J. Devers August Health Serv Res. Sociology: Themes and perspectives 6th ed, Collins Educational. It was a complete fraud".

Basics of Social Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

Published on June 19, by Pritha Bhandari. Revised on July 30, Qualitative research involves collecting and analyzing non-numerical data e. It can be used to gather in-depth insights into a problem or generate new ideas for research. Qualitative research is the opposite of quantitative research , which involves collecting and analyzing numerical data for statistical analysis. Qualitative research is commonly used in the humanities and social sciences, in subjects such as anthropology, sociology, education, health sciences, history, etc. Table of contents Approaches to qualitative research Qualitative research methods Qualitative data analysis Advantages of qualitative research Disadvantages of qualitative research Frequently asked questions about qualitative research.

Bunny was battered and bloody from fighting his way through a pack of Berserkers. Just none of this kind of useless land, where nothing lives but damned rats. Rats in the ground, rats in the air, and bugs, and bones-can you believe all the bones. You drowned her in your fancy fountain, just held her down, watching as her eyes went wide, her mouth opened and she screamed through the water. A tall ventilation tower, ringed by maintenance scaffolding, climbed high into the sky.


I consider two main issues in this chap- ter: why you should learn about doing social re- search and the basics of what social science research is all about. Social.


Social research

Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon. Babbie, Earl R. The Practice of Social Research. Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population.

Scientific Research An Academic Publisher. Neuman, W. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper was to explore the management of kindergarten school of Dilla University with reference to the learning environment and the kind of pedagogy employed. To examine the issue under consideration, the study was guided by qualitative case study.

Social Research – Definition, Types and Methods

Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Different socio-economic groups belonging to different parts of a county think differently. Various aspects of human behavior need to be addressed to understand their thoughts and feedback about the social world, which can be done using Social Research. Any topic can trigger social research — new feature, new market trend or an upgrade in old technology. Select your respondents.

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