Causes And Effects Of Soil Pollution In Points Pdf
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When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind.
Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics human-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene and benzo a pyrene , solvents , pesticides, lead , and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical substance. The concern over soil contamination stems primarily from health risks, from direct contact with the contaminated soil, vapours from the contaminants, or from secondary contamination of water supplies within and underlying the soil.
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In the case of contaminants which occur naturally in soil, even when their levels are not high enough to pose a risk, soil pollution is still said to occur if the levels of the contaminants in soil exceed the levels that should naturally be present. All soils, whether polluted or unpolluted, contain a variety of compounds contaminants which are naturally present. Such contaminants include metals, inorganic ions and salts e. These compounds are mainly formed through soil microbial activity and decomposition of organisms e. Additionally, various compounds get into the soil from the atmosphere, for instance with precipitation water, as well as by wind activity or other types of soil disturbances, and from surface water bodies and shallow groundwater flowing through the soil.
You were introduced to wastes and pollutants in Study Session 1, where we discussed the interactions between humans and our environment. Pollution was defined as the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms. Many human activities pollute our environment, adversely affecting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which we grow food. In this and the next study session we will look more closely at pollution. In this session you will learn about the different types and sources of pollution and the various human activities that can cause pollution. We will also describe the ways pollution can affect different sectors of the environment: water, air and soil.
Metrics details. A mounting body of the literature suggests that environmental chemicals found in food and water could affect female reproduction. The potential impact of Bisphenol A BPA , Phthalates and Perfluoroalkyl substances PFAS on female reproduction, in particular on puberty, PCOS pathogenesis, infertility, ovarian function, endometriosis, and recurrent pregnancy loss, in both humans and animals, will be discussed in this report in order to provide greater clinician and public awareness about the potential consequences of these chemicals. Thus proper education about these chemicals can help individuals decide to limit exposure, ultimately alleviating the risk on future generations. The constantly increasing pollution of the environment has been one of the greatest concerns for science and the general public in the last few decades.
Reduction in soil fertility. •. Loss of the natural nutrients of the. soil.
Soil contamination refers to the destruction of land that could be used constructively by human activities, either directly or indirectly. Presently, , ha of UK land is thought to be contaminated by toxic elements such as lead and arsenic. The same goes for the other industrialized nations which are the worst hit.
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We tend to look skywards when talking about pollution, but this problem is not confined to our skies. The soil in which our fruit and vegetables grow is also suffering its consequences, the effects of which getting to us directly, for instance, through the aforementioned foodstuffs. The time has come to look after what lies under our feet!
In this special issue we have invited authors who are scientists and engineers to contribute original research as well as review articles on recent advances made on techniques and methodologies for the soil pollution prevention and remediation. This journal is in the field of soil science and reflects its multidisciplinary nature including treatments for soil treatment and reclamation. Soil pollution probably represents the most faced problem in environmental pollution.
Learning Outcomes for Study Session 7
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