# Tabulation And Graphical Presentation Of Data Pdf

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*We define a diagrammatic representation as a visualization whose meaning is determined by the location of marks on a two-dimensional plane. It is applicable in both discrete and continuous frequency distributions.*

- Data presentation techniques final project
- Statistical data presentation
- Classification,Tabulation,Graphical and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

The present paper aims to provide basic guidelines to present epidemiological data using tables and graphs in Dermatology. Although simple, the preparation of tables and graphs should follow basic recommendations, which make it much easier to understand the data under analysis and to promote accurate communication in science. Additionally, this paper deals with other basic concepts in epidemiology, such as variable, observation, and data, which are useful both in the exchange of information between researchers and in the planning and conception of a research project. Among the essential stages of epidemiological research, one of the most important is the identification of data with which the researcher is working, as well as a clear and synthetic description of these data using graphs and tables.

## Data presentation techniques final project

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Data presentation techniques final project legal research methodology , Sneha Dhillon.

Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Data presentation techniques final project. I would like to thank him for his constant support and guidance for the completion of this assignment.

Also I would like to thank the department library and staff for their support and cooperation for the research work. Purposes of data presentation…………………………………….. How to make data efficiently presentable……….. Types of data presentation techniques……………………………………………. Limitations of graphical presentation…………………………… Advantages of graphs and diagrams…… Differences in graphs and diagrams………. Comparison between diagram and tables……………………………………………..

Before the calculation of descriptive statistics, it is sometimes a good idea to present data as tables, charts, diagrams or graphs.

Representation of data is the base for any field of study. Whenever collection of data is started and the range of data increases rapidly, an efficient and convenient technique for representing data is needed. In any organization top management persons and other concerned top level authority members do not have enough time to go through whole reports regarding the progress of their firm or organization, but any small point of data should not remain hidden from their eyes.

Otherwise this will affect the decisions taken by the authority people in a negative way. Therefore it is required for presenting the data in such a manner that enable reader to interpret the important data with minimum efforts and time. Several representation techniques have been developed in this concern 1 Data presentation and data representation are terms having similar meaning and importance. Therefore as a researcher related to science stream one need to develop the skills for researching information, designing experiments then analyzing and presenting the data produced.

The produced data can be presented in various patterns like text, table or graph. Each pattern has some merits and demerits. Ambiguity, clarity, format, accuracy and guidelines for representing data are the general points of consideration one should keep in mind while thinking about representation of data. All data must be presented in a way that says what it means.

Data in figures and legends must match text. Normally raw data are not presented in the reports, rather analyzed data is used. Obviously the analyzed data must be in a clear format. Author should use appropriate fonts, figures, legends, symbol size etc. Main Purposes Are3: 1. Give Bird's Eye View 3.

Facilitates Comparison Thus Data Presentation and analysis plays an essential role in every field. An excellent presentation can be a deal maker or deal breaker. Some people make an incredibly useful presentation with the same set of facts and figures which are available with others.

At times people who did all the hard work but failed to present it present it properly have lost essential contracts, the work which they did is unable to impress the decision makers. So to get the job done especially while dealing with clients or higher authorities presentation matters! There is an art to taking data and creating a story out of it that fulfills the purpose of the presentation.

So what to do? This is in fact a bad idea because it makes the graph look more jumbled and does not present well as people try to take in the visual nature of the data set that is being presented.

Here is an example of a presentation with plenty of data but too much text. Lines, Bars, Pies…. Choose What Makes Sense This is something that must be well thought out. Line graphs are great for time based data presentations. Bars are great for groupings. Pies are perfect for percentages of things. Knowing which type of graph makes the most sense can help in presenting the data to your audience. A great example is looking at the growth in search engine marketing across multiple device platforms including desktop, tablet, and mobile.

One could create 3 separate graphs showcasing the growth in search engine marketing via 3 separate bar graphs, but combing them into 1 graph creates a more powerful image for the audience. In the graph below, this could have been broken out into three separate graphs, but the presenter decided to consolidate into one graph. In the previous section we discussed consolidating data but there are cases when too much consolidation can be too complex for the eyes of the audience to consume.

Constructing the graphs as simple as you can make them will make it easier for your audience to grasp your message. Place labels close to data points Data legends and labels are often absent.

The presenter assumes that the audience will follow their verbal cues. This forces the audience to visually scan back and forth. When you are creating a legend, place the points close together in the corner upper right or bottom right of the graph.

Explain the data axes You may think this is simple and people will automatically get it but explaining the axis before any presentation is nonetheless important. All it should take you is seconds to give a basic understanding of what the axes mean. Talking numbers is never fun for an audience but if there are ways to incorporate the graph and data into a story that serves purpose and meaning to the presentation, work to do it.

You can never assume the audience fully understands what you are saying or conveying so digging deep into the numbers can be critical to getting your message home. It engages people, mixes up the visuals, and helps portray a message and tell a story. Tabular form is the most commonly used technique for data presentation. One variable is represented in columns and other in rows. Advantages Of A Table: 1.

Data is presented in the form of paragraphs and follows a rigid protocol to examine limited number of variables. The protocol can be identified according to the following cases: 1. Determine all the possible strategies for the present scenario. Determine the optimum suitable strategy. Evaluating the selected strategy in a particular case. Graphic techniques are especially valuable in presenting quantitative data in a simple, clear, and effective manner, as well as facilitating comparisons of values, trends, and relationships.

They have the additional advantages of succinctness and popular appeal; the comprehensive pictures they provide can bring out hidden facts and relationships and contribute to a more balanced understanding of a problem. They are a particularly effective way of presenting a large amount of data but can also be used instead of a table to present smaller datasets.

There are many different graph types to choose from and a critical issue is to ensure that the graph type selected is the most appropriate for the data. Having done this, it is then essential to ensure that the design and presentation of the graph help the reader or audience interpret the data. The graph is constructed such that the heights or lengths of the different bars are proportional to the size of the category they represent.

Since the x-axis the horizontal axis represents the different categories it has no scale. The y-axis the vertical axis does have a scale and this indicates the units of measurement. The bars can be drawn either vertically or horizontally depending upon the number of categories and length or complexity of the category labels.

There are various ways in which bar charts can be constructed and this makes them a very flexible chart type. For example, if there is more than one set of values for each category then grouped or component bar charts can be used to display the data. For example a histogram could be used to present details of the average number of hours exercise carried out by people of different ages because age is a continuous rather than a discrete category.

However, because a continuous category may have a large number of possible values the data are often grouped to reduce the number of data points. For example, instead of drawing a bar for each individual age between 0 and 65, the data could be grouped into a series of continuous age ranges such as , , etc.

Unlike a bar chart, in a histogram both the x- and y-axes have a scale. This means that it is the area of the bar that is proportional to the size of the category represented and not just its height.

The example here shows the proportional distribution of visitors between different types of tourist attractions. Similar uses of a pie chart would be to show the percentage of the total votes received by each party in an election.

Pie charts should only be used for displaying nominal data i. They are generally best for showing information grouped into a small number of categories and are a graphical way of displaying data that might otherwise be presented as a simple table.

The study guide Pie Charts gives more details about designing pie charts and using them to compare data. Each sector shows the relative size of each value. Pie chart is also known as circle graph. The bigger the slice, the more of that particular data was gathered.

## Statistical data presentation

The orderly or systematic presentation of Numerical Data in rows and columns designed to clarify the problem under consideration and to facilitate the comparison between the figures. Department wise and gender wise classification of university students No. In a sample study about tea-Habit in two towns the following information was received. Those series in which the items or observations are listed singly Marks x : 35 28 25 35 48 63 57 48 55 Class width:- difference between lower limit of that class interval and lower limit of the class interval next to it. Present a less than and more than cumulative frequency distribution form the following data Marks No.

ing, and presenting a set of data in such a way that useful information is produced. Data. Statistics. Information. It makes use of graphical techniques and.

## Classification,Tabulation,Graphical and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data

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#### Introduction

Tabular Presentation. Learn vocabulary, terms, Graphical Presentation. Data arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude is called: a Ungrouped data b Grouped data c Discrete frequency distribution d Arrayed data MCQ No 2. A contingency table … Creating a good table … Three way table — This table gives information regarding three interrelated characteristics of a particular variable.

To ace the exam scores, these solutions are a must for all the commerce students. Here, we look Tables Class 11 Sandeep Garg solutions tabular presentation pdf is available for free for all the students and can be downloaded at a single click. Let us make an in-depth study of the graphical representation of statistical data. These solutions for Tabular Presentation are extremely popular among Class 11 Commerce students for Economics Tabular Presentation Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. Axes must be labeled and there must be a scale to indicate the magnitude of the data. Frequency distribution is a type of tabular method. Costly: Graphical representation pf reports are costly because it involves images, colors, and paints.

The data is organized in rows and columns. Presenting statistical information graphs. It helps in the comparison of different data sets and brings out their essential aspects. Textual - statements with numerals or numbers that serve as supplements to tabular presentation 5. Direct link.

Data are usually collected in a raw format and thus the inherent information is difficult to understand.

Tabular presentation Presentation of data in tables so as to organize the data into a compact, concise and readily comprehensible form. Costly: Graphical representation pf reports are costly because it involves images, colors, and paints. Tabular Methods Tabular method of data presentation is wide spread in all spheres of human life.

They can provide a better visual presentation of characteristics of data than tabular presentation. These solutions for Tabular Presentation are extremely popular among Class 11 Commerce students for Economics Tabular Presentation Solutions come handy for quickly completing your homework and preparing for exams. The most common way of presentation of data is in the form of statements. After collection of data, the person has to find ways to arrange them in tabular form in order to observe their features and study them.

*To browse Academia. Skip to main content.*

У нас ничего такого не случалось. - Вот. - Она едва заметно подмигнула. - В этом все и .

Мидж… я уже говорил… - Да или нет: мог в ТРАНСТЕКСТ проникнуть вирус. Джабба шумно вздохнул. - Нет, Мидж. Это абсолютно исключено.

*Найди себе какого-нибудь парня да развлекись с ним как следует. Она снова вздохнула.*

Как весенний лед на реке, потрескивал корпус ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Я спущусь вниз и отключу электропитание, - сказал Стратмор, положив руку на плечо Сьюзан и стараясь ее успокоить. - И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку. Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут .

Он почувствовал, как этот удар передался на руль, и плотнее прижался к мотоциклу. Боже всевышний. Похоже, мне не уйти.

*К тому же у нас вышел из строя генератор.*

Тогда, при чтении сверху вниз, перед глазами магически возникало тайное послание. С течением времени этот метод преобразования текста был взят на вооружение многими другими и модифицирован, с тем чтобы его труднее было прочитать. Кульминация развития докомпьютерного шифрования пришлась на время Второй мировой войны. Нацисты сконструировали потрясающую шифровальную машину, которую назвали Энигма. Она была похожа на самую обычную старомодную пишущую машинку с медными взаимосвязанными роторами, вращавшимися сложным образом и превращавшими открытый текст в запутанный набор на первый взгляд бессмысленных групп знаков.

Только подумайте. Беккер встревожился: - Так кольца у вас. - Боже мой, конечно.

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