Special Education Terms And Definitions Pdf

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The following list contains special education terms, definitions and acronyms that are commonly used by schools during the IEP process.

Special education also known as special-needs education , aided education , exceptional education , special ed.

Serving as a professional educator is arguably the most important contribution a person can offer in society today. In particular, those who choose to serve students with special needs play a crucial role in improving the outcomes of individuals with disabilities. This course is intended to be a guide in assisting you in acquiring basic understandings of special education processes and the nature and needs of students with disabilities.

Special education

Special education also known as special-needs education , aided education , exceptional education , special ed. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, and accessible settings.

These interventions are designed to help individuals with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and in their community which may not be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education. Special education aims to provide accommodated education for students with disabilities such as learning disabilities such as dyslexia , communication disorders , emotional and behavioral disorders such as ADHD , physical disabilities such as osteogenesis imperfecta , cerebral palsy , muscular dystrophy , spina bifida , and Friedreich's ataxia , and developmental disabilities such as autistic spectrum disorders including autism and Asperger syndrome and intellectual disability and many other disabilities.

While some scholars of education may categorize gifted education under the umbrella of "special education," this pedagogical approach is much different based on students' capabilities. Intellectual giftedness is a difference in learning and can also benefit from specialized teaching techniques or different educational programs, but the term "special education" is generally used to specifically indicate instruction of disabled students. Whereas special education is designed specifically for students with learning disabilities, remedial education can be designed for any students, with or without special needs; the defining trait is simply that they have reached a point of unpreparedness, regardless of why.

For example, even people of high intelligence can be under-prepared if their education was disrupted, for example, by internal displacement during civil disorder or a war. In most developed countries , educators modify teaching methods and environments so that the maximum number of students are served in general education environments. Therefore, special education in developed countries is often regarded as a service rather than a place. The opposite of special education is general education.

General education is the standard curriculum presented without special teaching methods or supports. Students receiving special education services can sometimes enroll in a General education setting to learn along with students without disabilities.

Some children are easily identified as candidates for special needs due to their medical history. For example, they may have been diagnosed with a genetic condition that is associated with intellectual disability , may have various forms of brain damage , may have a developmental disorder , may have visual or hearing disabilities, or other disabilities. On the other hand, for students with less obvious disabilities, such as those who have learning difficulties, two primary methods have been used for identifying them: the discrepancy model and the response to intervention model.

The discrepancy model depends on the teacher noticing that the students' achievements are noticeably below what is expected. At which the teacher may make the decision for the student to receive support from a special education specialist. Before doing so, the teacher must show documentation of low academic achievement. The response to intervention model advocates earlier intervention. In the discrepancy model, a student receives special education services for a specific learning difficulty SLD if the student has at least normal intelligence and the student's academic achievement is below what is expected of a student with his or her IQ.

Although the discrepancy model has dominated the school system for many years, there has been substantial criticism of this approach e.

One reason for criticism is that diagnosing SLDs on the basis of the discrepancy between achievement and IQ does not predict the effectiveness of treatment. Low academic achievers who also have low IQ appear to benefit from treatment just as much as low academic achievers who have normal or high intelligence. The alternative approach, response to intervention, identifies children who are having difficulties in school in their first or second year after starting school.

They then receive additional assistance such as participating in a reading remediation program. The response of the children to this intervention then determines whether they are designated as having a learning disability. Those few who still have trouble may then receive designation and further assistance. Sternberg has argued that early remediation can greatly reduce the number of children meeting diagnostic criteria for learning disabilities.

He has also suggested that the focus on learning disabilities and the provision of accommodations in school fails to acknowledge that people have a range of strengths and weaknesses and places undue emphasis on academics by insisting that students should be supported in this area and not in music or sports. A special education program should be customized to address each student's needs. Special educators provide a continuum of services, in which students with various disabilities receive multiple degrees of support based on their individual needs.

It is crucial for special education programs to be individualized so that they address the unique combination of needs in a given student. It is a legally binding document [in the US]. The school must provide everything it promises in the IEP. In the US, for children who are not yet three years old, an Individual Family Service Plan IFSP contains information on the child's present level of development in all areas; outcomes for the child and family; and services the child and family will receive to help them achieve the outcomes.

In the United States, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA is a federal law that requires every school system to provide a free and appropriate public education for every child, ages 3 to 22, regardless of how or how seriously that child may be disabled.

After the law was updated into the Disabilities Education Improvement Act, the ability to identify special needs children and give them the appropriate education environment was improved.

Students with all forms of special needs are assessed to determine their specific strengths and weaknesses. Accommodations and modifications to the regular program may include changes in the curriculum, supplementary aids or equipment, and the provision of specialized physical adaptations that allow students to participate in the educational environment as much as possible.

For example, if the assessment determines that the student cannot write by hand because of a physical disability, then the school might provide a computer for typing assignments, or allow the student to answer questions verbally instead.

If the school determines that the student is severely distracted by the normal activities in a large, busy classroom, then the student might be placed in a smaller classroom such as a separate classroom or resource room.

Parents of students with a learning disability must be aware of what type of disability their child has, so they can get access to accommodations such as speech therapy, occupational therapy and adaptive physical education. For example, if a student takes an academic test and it indicates that the student struggles with reading comprehension, parents can request speech and language support or classroom accommodations, such as extra time to complete reading and writing tasks.

Schools use different approaches to providing special education services to students. These approaches can be broadly grouped into four categories, according to how much contact the student with special needs has with non-disabled students using North American terminology :.

A special school is a school catering for students who have special educational needs due to learning difficulties , physical disabilities or behavioral problems. Special schools may be specifically designed, staffed and resourced to provide appropriate special education for children with additional needs.

Students attending special schools generally do not attend any classes in mainstream schools. Special schools provide individualized education, addressing specific needs. Student to teacher ratios are kept low, often or lower depending upon the needs of the children. Special schools will also have other facilities for children with special needs, such as soft play areas, sensory rooms, or swimming pools , which are necessary for treating students with certain conditions.

In recent times, places available in special schools are declining as more children with special needs are educated in mainstream schools. However, there will always be some children, whose learning needs cannot be appropriately met in a regular classroom setting and will require specialized education and resources to provide the level of support they require.

An example of a disability that may require a student to attend a special school is intellectual disability. However, this practice is often frowned upon by school districts in the US in the light of Least Restrictive Environment as mandated in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. An alternative is a special unit or special classroom , also called a self-contained classroom , which is a separate classroom dedicated solely to the education of students with special needs within a larger school that also provides general education.

This classroom is typically staffed by a specially trained teacher, who provide specific, individualized instruction to individuals and small groups of students with special needs. Separate classrooms, because they are located in a general education school, may have students who remain in the separate classroom full-time, or students who are mainstreamed in certain general education classes.

An alternative to the separate classroom full-time for a student would be a one-to-one aide in the general education setting. In the United States a part-time alternative that is appropriate for some students is sometimes called a resource room. Another alternative would be attending a separate classroom for a specific subject such as social studies.

One of the first special schools in the world was the Institut National des Jeunes Aveugles in Paris, which was founded in It was the first school in the world to teach blind students. K, for the Deaf was established [26] [27] in Edinburgh by Thomas Braidwood , with education for visually impaired people beginning in the Edinburgh and Bristol in In the 19th century, people with disabilities and the inhumane conditions where they were supposedly housed and educated were addressed in the literature of Charles Dickens.

Dickens characterized people with severe disabilities as having the same, if not more, compassion and insight in Bleak House and Little Dorrit. Such attention to the downtrodden conditions of people with disabilities brought resulted in reforms in Europe including the re-evaluation of special schools. In the United States reform came more slowly. Throughout the mid half of the 20th century, special schools, termed institutions, were not only accepted, but encouraged.

Students with disabilities were housed with people with mental illnesses , and they were not educated much, if at all. With the Amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of , school districts in the United States began to slowly integrate students with moderate and severe special needs into regular school systems.

This changed the form and function of special education services in many school districts and special schools subsequently saw a steady decrease in enrollment as districts weighed the cost per student. It also posed general funding dilemmas to certain local schools and districts, changed how schools view assessments, and formally introduced the concept of inclusion to many educators, students and parents.

The student can be taught in either a classroom or outside environment. Both environments can be interactive for the student to engage better with the subject. Different instructional techniques are used for some students with special educational needs. Instructional strategies are classified as being either accommodations or modifications.

An accommodation is a reasonable adjustment to teaching practices so that the student learns the same material, but in a format that is more accessible to the student. Accommodations may be classified by whether they change the presentation, response, setting, or scheduling of lessons. This is a presentation accommodation. A modification changes or adapts the material to make it simpler.

A student may receive both accommodations and modifications. All developed countries permit or require some degree of accommodation for students with special needs, and special provisions are usually made in examinations which take place at the end of formal schooling. In addition to how the student is taught the academic curriculum, schools may provide non-academic services to the student. These are intended ultimately to increase the student's personal and academic abilities. Related services include developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as are required to assist a student with learning disabilities and includes speech and language pathology , audiology , psychological services, physical therapy , occupational therapy , counseling services, including rehabilitation counseling, orientation and mobility services, medical services as defined by regulations, parent counseling and training, school health services, school social work, assistive technology services, other appropriate developmental or corrective support services, appropriate access to recreation and other appropriate support services.

As an example, students who have autistic spectrum disorders , poor impulse control , or other behavioral challenges may learn self-management techniques, be kept closely on a comfortingly predictable schedule, or given extra cues to signal activities. A university field, termed severe disabilities , also is taught throughout the US university sector in schools of education.

Advanced instruction is based upon community-referenced instruction, and alignment with transition to adulthood and progressive community practices. Rehabilitation counseling personnel are often association with supported employment services, and typically with "transition to adulthood" [40] [41] in which multi-decade recommendations for better coordination between the school and the community service sectors have been made at the federal and university levels.

At-risk students those with educational needs that are not associated with a disability are often placed in classes with students who have disabilities. Critics assert that placing at-risk students in the same classes as students with disabilities may impede the educational progress of people with disabilities. The practice of inclusion in mainstream classrooms has been criticized by advocates and some parents of children with special needs because some of these students require instructional methods that differ dramatically from typical classroom methods.

Critics assert that it is not possible to deliver effectively two or more very different instructional methods in the same classroom. As a result, the educational progress of students who depend on different instructional methods to learn often fall even further behind their peers. Parents of typically developing children sometimes fear that the special needs of a single "fully included" student will take critical levels of attention and energy away from the rest of the class and thereby impair the academic achievements of all students.

Linked to this, there is debate about the extent to which students with special needs, whether in mainstream or special settings, should have a specific pedagogy, based on the scientific study of particular diagnostic categories, or whether general instructional techniques are relevant to all students including those with special needs. Some parents, advocates, and students have concerns about the eligibility criteria and their application.

Glossary of Special Education Terms and Acronyms

California Special Education Law. Equipment used to maintain or improve the capabilities of a child with a disability. Under the ADA, an impairment that substantially affects one or more major life activities, record of having such impairment, or being regarded as having such an impairment. Pre-trial process by which parties to a lawsuit exchange information with the other party. Special education and related services pursuant to the IDEA provided to children under the age of 5 years.

Students receiving accommodations read the same material and take the same tests as their peers without disabilities. Acquisition Deficit: A type of social skills deficit that stems from a lack of knowledge: a child does not understand a skill, and thus cannot master it. Every state has the freedom to define AYP. In addition to the annual review meeting, other meetings can be called by teachers or parents whenever needed. This group is responsible for creating, implementing and maintaining the educational program from students with disabilities, as identified by IDEA.

Key Terms to Know in Special Education

Need to know how key terms in special education are defined? CPIR is pleased to provide this handy reference to special education terminology, and hopes it helps our readers quickly connect with the meaning of pivotal words and phrases in the field. We frequently refer to this law on our website and in our publications, because it guides how special education and related services are provided to children with disabilities in the United States.

Tools and procedures that give students with disabilities equal access to instruction and assessment. They are designed to level the playing field for students with disabilities, and are generally grouped into the following categories:. These are textbooks and instructional materials that have been converted into a format that is accessible to a student who is unable to use standard printed materials.

Here is a definitive guide to things that you may hear whilst you are studying at university and what they mean!

Special education

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Ведь на нем - единственный экземпляр ключа! - Теперь она понимала, что нет никакой Северной Дакоты, как нет и копии ключа. Даже если АНБ расскажет о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, Танкадо им уже ничем не поможет. Стратмор молчал. Положение оказалось куда серьезнее, чем предполагала Сьюзан.

 Слишком поздно, - сказал Стратмор. Он глубоко вздохнул.  - Сегодня утром Энсея Танкадо нашли мертвым в городе Севилья, в Испании.

Special Education Glossary

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