Theories Of Counselling And Psychotherapy Pdf

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theories of counselling and psychotherapy pdf

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CP5201 Theories of Counselling and Psychotherapy - Providence ...

Counseling theories and counseling therapies are the building blocks of the profession. Probably every counselor has had at least one course in theories of counseling, and the names of the leading theorists, such as Sigmund Freud, Albert Ellis, Carl Rogers, and others, are both legendary and familiar. This article will address what constitutes a theory of counseling, why counseling theories and therapies are so important, and how these theories have evolved.

Estimates are that more than counseling theories and therapies have been advanced. Although most of these have received little attention or validation, a core group of about 10 major theories, and fewer than 50 secondary approaches or modifications of the major theories, dominate the counseling profession.

Most of these theories are characterized by the following important ingredients:. Although, of course, counselors cannot master all the important counseling theories and therapies, most counselors have a few preferred theories that they use with confidence and competence. Their skills in those therapeutic approaches enable them to do the following:. Although counseling theories and therapies overlap considerably, they can be organized into four broad groups.

Each group is characterized by its primary emphasis background, behavior, emotions, thoughts , as well as its theoretical rationale. Freud, viewed as the father of psychotherapy, advanced the first widely studied theory of therapy. In addition, current conceptions of brief psychodynamic therapy developed by Gerald Klerman, Hans Strupp, and others, also are rooted in Freudian thinking. Theories emphasizing behavior and behavioral change represent the second wave of counseling theories and therapies.

Gaining attention during the s and s and becoming a powerful force in the mental health professions, these approaches presented both an alternative and a challenge to psychoanalysis. Behavior therapy takes the stance that behavior is learned through exposure, modeling, conditioning, experiences, rewards, and punishments. In light of this, behavior that is unhealthy, nonproductive, or harmful to the self or others can be unlearned and replaced with new and more effective behaviors.

The foundations of behavior counseling can be found in the work of Ivan Pavlov and John W. Others, including B. Skinner, John Dollard and Neal Miller, Joseph Wolpe, and Albert Bandura, used both research and theory to develop strategies to promote behavioral change. More recent theorists, including Arnold Lazarus, Donald Meichenbaum, Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck, and William Glasser, have further expanded on the application of behavior counseling by combining that approach with cognitive therapy.

The popularity of solution-focused therapy also has promoted the importance and power of behavioral change. Behavior counseling focuses on present manifestations of observable behaviors and targets a broad range of behaviors, including substance use, eating, interpersonal skills, self-care, study habits, executive functioning, exercise, parenting, working and playing, and many others. Behaviors are viewed in context and a collaborative alliance of counselor and client is viewed as essential.

Treatment typically begins by establishing a baseline or clear picture of the nature and severity of the undesirable behavior. Goal setting promotes motivation, facilitates development of change strategies, and helps people move forward.

Behavior counseling incorporates a wide range of strategies to facilitate change, such as education, skill training, reinforcement, desensitization, relaxation, behavioral rehearsal, and many others. Peer and group support, as well as relapse prevention, often help to solidify gains.

Carl Rogers, through his development of what is now called person-centered counseling, deserves most of the credit for bringing the third wave of counseling theories to the fore.

He believed that counseling would be more effective if counselors could join with their clients on an emotional level, feel appreciation and empathy for them, help them express their emotions fully, and use their own resources to enhance their self-esteem and improve their lives. Most counselors now appreciate the importance of the therapeutic alliance and the facilitative conditions that enhance that relationship. During his lifetime, other approaches emphasizing feelings, such as Gestalt therapy, developed by Fritz and Laura Perls, and existential therapy also garnered attention.

These newer approaches have contributed to a deeper appreciation for the tenets of person-centered counseling. Albert Ellis, who initially developed rational emotive behavior therapy in the s, led the way in the development of cognitive theories and therapies of counseling.

His efforts to help people identify dysfunctional thoughts or irrational beliefs and replace them with thoughts that are valid, logical, flexible, and helpful gave counselors yet a fourth perspective on the process of change. The subsequent work of Aaron Beck provided more structure, as well as additional effective tools, to counselors who emphasized cognitions in their work.

Ellis, Beck, and other cognitive therapists hold that thoughts are the most powerful and successful route to effect change. Like behavior counseling, cognitive therapy is a structured but flexible approach that usually focuses on the present, seeks to effect fairly rapid change, and involves client-counselor collaboration.

Cognitive therapy also draws heavily on a wide range of treatment strategies, such as affirmations and self-talk, thought stopping, imagery, and, most important, transformation of dysfunctional and unhealthy thoughts into healthy and helpful ones. This entry on counseling theories and therapies has focused on four broad approaches to treatment, distinguished by whether they emphasize background, emotions, behaviors, or cognitions.

Counselors also should keep in mind the growing trend toward eclectic and integrated approaches. Most integrated counseling theories and therapies are still in the formative stages. However, this is a growing area of the profession, and we can anticipate expansion and refinement of integrated approaches.

Counseling Theories

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4 Counselling Approaches Explained

Even in short-term counselling, which may take a few hours, the counsellor will try to see problems from the perspective of the client, treat him with great respect and care, and maintain strict confidentiality regarding the proceedings. For instance, Carl Rogers laid down the principles of client-centred therapy with a focus on unconditional positive regard for the client, empathy and congruity genuineness as the central features in the relationship. Counselling helps them to open up repressed thoughts and feelings and lay them bare as counselling progresses, thus developing self-awareness and allowing access to the inner self.

Professional counselors apply a variety of clinical approaches in their work, and there are hundreds of clinical counseling approaches to choose from. To answer that question, it is first necessary to understand that no one counseling approach is better than the rest. That is because counseling approaches are based upon theories about human function and change as opposed to hard evidence. Determining whether one counseling approach works better than another is difficult, because there are so many variables to consider in the counseling process. For example, if we try to compare the effectiveness of two counselors applying the same theoretical model, there can be major differences in the counseling outcome due to differences in the clients' histories and situations, differences in the counselors' communication styles, and even differences in client and counselor mood on the day of the comparison.

June 01, by Counseling Staff. Theoretical approaches are an understandably integral part of the therapeutic process. But with so many different methods out there, how do you know which counseling approach works best for you?

Nature of Counselling and Theoretical Orientations in Psychotherapy

THEORITICAL MODELS OF COUNSELING AND PSYCHOTHERAPY THIRD EDITION

CP Theories of Counselling and Psychotherapy. An introduction to current Christian and secular approaches to, and theories of ,. The student will develop a framework for critiquing. Christian and secular therapies. The analytical appraisal of the presuppositions. Specifically, for students to gain a. A text that gives an overview of the major theories.

In this section, we compare the different counselling approaches , looking at the differences and the similarities. We compare person-centred therapy, transactional analysis, and rational emotive behavioural therapy. We also look at the future of counselling.

Counseling theories and counseling therapies are the building blocks of the profession. Probably every counselor has had at least one course in theories of counseling, and the names of the leading theorists, such as Sigmund Freud, Albert Ellis, Carl Rogers, and others, are both legendary and familiar. This article will address what constitutes a theory of counseling, why counseling theories and therapies are so important, and how these theories have evolved. Estimates are that more than counseling theories and therapies have been advanced. Although most of these have received little attention or validation, a core group of about 10 major theories, and fewer than 50 secondary approaches or modifications of the major theories, dominate the counseling profession.


The book aims to teach students to select wisely from various theories and techniques and to begin to develop a personal style of counseling. I have found that.


Why have different counselling approaches?

This comprehensive, topically arranged text provides a contemporary account of counseling theories as practiced by internationally acclaimed experts in the field. Each chapter covers the way mindfulness, strengths-based positive psychology, and the common factors model is integrated into the theory. A special emphasis on evidence-based practice helps readers prepare for their work in the field. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can save clips, playlists and searches.

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Contemporary Theory and Practice in Counseling and Psychotherapy

2 Comments

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  2. Ralf L. 26.05.2021 at 03:09

    Do you want to know how to become a licensed mental health counselor?