Difference Between Hodgkins And Non Hodgkins Lymphoma Pdf File
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When discussing the complex disease known as cancer, it is surprisingly easy to follow along as to its primarily affected location. Most cancers are referred to by where the tumor is initially situated. Breast cancer, liver cancer and testicular cancer are just a few of the straightforward examples.
- Differences Between Hodgkin & Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
- Hodgkin lymphoma
- What is non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
- Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin Lymphoma: What’s the Difference?
These type of diseases may sound very similar, but they are also two very different types of cancers.
Differences Between Hodgkin & Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Hodgkin lymphoma HL is a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates from a specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy , radiation therapy , and stem cell transplant. In , about , people globally had Hodgkin lymphoma, and 23, 4. Hodgkin lymphoma must be distinguished from non-cancerous causes of lymph node swelling such as various infections and from other types of cancer.
Definitive diagnosis is by lymph node biopsy usually excisional biopsy with microscopic examination. Blood tests are also performed to assess function of major organs and to assess safety for chemotherapy.
PET scans are also useful in functional imaging by using a radiolabeled glucose to image tissues of high metabolism. In some cases a Gallium scan may be used instead of a PET scan. There are two main types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma excluding nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma can be subclassified into four pathologic subtypes based upon Reed—Sternberg cell morphology and the composition of the reactive cell infiltrate seen in the lymph node biopsy specimen the cell composition around the Reed—Sternberg cell s.
For the other forms, although the traditional B-cell markers such as CD20 are not expressed on all cells,  Reed—Sternberg cells are usually of B cell origin. Hodgkin cells produce interleukin IL , which was once thought to be exclusive to T-cells. This feature may explain the behavior of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, including clusters of other immune cells gathered around HL cells infiltrate in cultures. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma NLPHL is another subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma distinct from Classical Hodgkin lymphoma and is characterized by the presence of popcorn cells which express CD After Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed, a person will be staged : that is, they will undergo a series of tests and procedures that will determine what areas of the body are affected.
Positron emission tomography PET scan is now used instead of the gallium scan for staging. On the PET scan, sites involved with lymphoma light up very brightly enabling accurate and reproducible imaging. Lymphangiograms or laparotomies are very rarely performed, having been supplanted by improvements in imaging with the CT scan and PET scan. On the basis of this staging, the person will be classified according to a staging classification the Ann Arbor staging classification scheme is a common one :.
The absence of systemic symptoms is signified by adding "A" to the stage; the presence of systemic symptoms is signified by adding "B" to the stage. For localised extranodal extension from mass of nodes that does not advance the stage, subscript "E" is added. Splenic involvement is signified by adding "S" to the stage.
The inclusion of "bulky disease" is signified by "X". Affected lymph nodes most often, laterocervical lymph nodes are enlarged, but their shape is preserved because the capsule is not invaded. Usually, the cut surface is white-grey and uniform; in some histological subtypes e. A fibrin ring granuloma may be seen. Microscopic examination of the lymph node biopsy reveals complete or partial effacement of the lymph node architecture by scattered large malignant cells known as Reed-Sternberg cells RSC typical and variants admixed within a reactive cell infiltrate composed of variable proportions of lymphocytes, histiocytes, eosinophils, and plasma cells.
Hodgkin lymphoma can be sub-classified by histological type. The cell histology in Hodgkin lymphoma is not as important as it is in non-Hodgkin lymphoma : the treatment and prognosis in classic Hodgkin lymphoma usually depends on the stage of disease rather than the histotype. The current approach for treatment aims to reduce the acute and long-term toxicities associated with Hodgkin lymphoma e. People with early stage disease IA or IIA are effectively treated with radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
The choice of treatment depends on the age, sex, bulk and the histological subtype of the disease. People of any stage with a large mass in the chest are usually treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although no longer the most effective combination, MOPP is still used after relapse or where the person has certain allergies or lung or heart problems which prevents the use of another regimen.
The common non-Hodgkin treatment, rituximab which is a monoclonal antibody against CD20 is not routinely used to treat Hodgkin lymphoma due to the lack of CD20 surface antigens in most cases. The use of rituximab in Hodgkin lymphoma, including the lymphocyte predominant subtype has been recently reviewed. Although increased age is an adverse risk factor for Hodgkin lymphoma, in general elderly people without major comorbidities are sufficiently fit to tolerate standard therapy, and have a treatment outcome comparable to that of younger people.
However, the disease is a different entity in older people and different considerations enter into treatment decisions. Radiation oncologists deliver external beam radiation therapy to the lymphoma from a machine called a linear accelerator which produces high energy X-rays and electrons. People usually describe treatments as painless and similar to getting an X-ray. Treatments last less than 30 minutes each. For lymphomas, there are a few different ways radiation oncologists target the cancer cells.
Involved site radiation is when the radiation oncologists give radiation only to those parts of the person's body known to have the cancer. Radiation therapy directed above the diaphragm to the neck, chest or underarms is called mantle field radiation.
Radiation to below the diaphragm to the abdomen, spleen or pelvis is called inverted-Y field radiation. Total nodal irradiation is when the therapist gives radiation to all the lymph nodes in the body to destroy cells that may have spread. The high cure rates and long survival of many people with Hodgkin lymphoma has led to a high concern with late adverse effects of treatment, including cardiovascular disease and second malignancies such as acute leukemias , lymphomas, and solid tumors within the radiation therapy field.
Most people with early-stage disease are now treated with abbreviated chemotherapy and involved site radiation therapy rather than with radiation therapy alone. Clinical research strategies are exploring reduction of the duration of chemotherapy and dose and volume of radiation therapy in an attempt to reduce late morbidity and mortality of treatment while maintaining high cure rates.
Hospitals are also treating those who respond quickly to chemotherapy with no radiation. In childhood cases of Hodgkin lymphoma, long-term endocrine adverse effects are a major concern, mainly gonadal dysfunction and growth retardation.
Gonadal dysfunction seems to be the most severe endocrine long-term effect, especially after treatment with alkylating agents or pelvic radiotherapy. It is possible that patients undergoing a chemotherapy need a platelet transfusion. Adding physical exercises to the standard treatment for adult patients with haematological malignancies like Hodgkin lymphoma may result in little to no difference in the mortality, the quality of life and the physical functioning.
These exercises may result in a slight reduction in depression. Furthermore, aerobic physical exercises probably reduce fatigue.
The evidence is very uncertain about the effect on anxiety and serious adverse events. Treatment of Hodgkin's disease has been improving over the past few decades. Recent trials that have made use of new types of chemotherapy have indicated higher survival rates than have previously been seen.
In , an international effort  identified seven prognostic factors that accurately predict the success rate of conventional treatment in people with locally extensive or advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Freedom from progression FFP at 5 years was directly related to the number of factors present in a person.
More recently, use of positron emission tomography PET early after commencing chemotherapy has demonstrated to have powerful prognostic ability.
This prognostic power exceeds conventional factors discussed above. Several trials are underway to see if PET-based risk adapted response can be used to improve a persons outcomes by changing chemotherapy early in people who are not responding.
Negative interim PET scan results may result in an increase in progression-free survival compared if the adjusted result was measured. Negative interim PET scan results probably result in a large increase in the overall survival compared to those with a positive interim PET scan result, .
Unlike some other lymphomas , whose number of new cases per year increases with age, Hodgkin lymphoma has a bimodal curve for the number of cases; that is, it occurs most frequently in two separate age groups, the first being young adulthood age 15—35 and the second being in those over 55 years old although these peaks may vary slightly with nationality.
The annual number of cases of Hodgkin lymphoma is 2. In , globally it resulted in about 18, deaths down from 19, in The number of cases of Hodgkin lymphoma is increased in people with HIV infection. Hodgkin lymphoma accounts for 0. In , approximately Canadians will be diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma, and will die of the disease. Around 1, people were diagnosed with the disease in , and around people died in In , there were 8, new cases and 1, mortalities attributed to Hodgkin Lymphoma, a decrease from the 8, new cases and 1, mortalities in Hodgkin lymphoma was first described in an report by Thomas Hodgkin , although Hodgkin noted that perhaps the earliest reference to the condition was provided by Marcello Malpighi in Of the seven cases, two were under the care of Richard Bright , one was of Thomas Addison , and one was of Robert Carswell.
Hodgkin's report on these seven people, entitled "On some morbid appearances of the absorbent glands and spleen", was presented to the Medical and Chirurgical Society of London in January and was subsequently published in the society's journal, Medical-Chirurgical Society Transactions. In , Samuel Wilks independently reported on a series of people with the same disease that Hodgkin had previously described. Bright made Wilks aware of Hodgkin's contribution and in , Wilks published a second paper, entitled "Cases of enlargement of the lymphatic glands and spleen", in which he called the disease "Hodgkin's disease" in honor of his predecessor.
Theodor Langhans and WS Greenfield first described the microscopic characteristics of Hodgkin lymphoma in and , respectively. Tissue specimens from Hodgkin seven people remained at Guy's Hospital for a number of years. Nearly years after Hodgkin's initial publication, histopathologic reexamination confirmed Hodgkin lymphoma in only three of seven of these people. Hodgkin lymphoma was one of the first cancers which could be treated using radiation therapy and, later, it was one of the first to be treated by combination chemotherapy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of blood and immune-system cancer. December August 3, Archived from the original on 28 July Retrieved 12 August World Health Organization. Chapter 2.
Retrieved 13 August April Archived from the original on 17 October October Archived from the original on March Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a blood cancer that begins in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It is one of the two main groups of lymphoma. The other group is Hodgkin lymphoma. Most commonly, non-Hodgkin lymphoma starts in a lymph node at one or more places in the body. It can spread through the lymphatic system from one group of lymph nodes to another.
What is non-Hodgkin lymphoma?
With a common origin, similar symptoms and a shared name, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma are easy to confuse. Both cancers originate in the lymphatic system, the body's network of lymph nodes that dispatch white blood cells called B lymphocytes. These cells produce antibodies that help us fight off infections.
Hodgkin lymphoma HL is a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates from a specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy , radiation therapy , and stem cell transplant.
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin Lymphoma: What’s the Difference?
Although the diseases may sound similar, there is a lot of difference between Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Both diseases are malignancies of a family of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, which help the body fight off infections and other diseases. Hodgkin lymphoma is marked by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, which are mature B cells that have become malignant, are unusually large, and carry more than one nucleus. The first sign of the disease is often the appearance of enlarged lymph nodes. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, by contrast, can be derived from B cells or T cells and can arise in the lymph nodes as well as other organs. The median age of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma is 60, but it occurs in all age groups. Hodgkin lymphoma most often occurs in people ages 15 to 24 and in people over
With two similar-sounding names, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma can easily be confused. Lymphoma is a form of cancer that affects the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that plays an important role in the immune system. The primary difference between these two categories of lymphatic cancer is the type of lymphocyte that is affected.
The lymphatic system is a system of thin tubes and lymph nodes that run throughout the body. Lymph nodes are bean shaped glands. The thin tubes are called lymph vessels or lymphatic vessels. Tissue fluid called lymph circulates around the body in these vessels and flows through the lymph nodes. The lymphatic system is an important part of our immune system. It plays a role in fighting bacteria and other infections.
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma NHL is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphomas except Hodgkin lymphomas. Lymphomas are types of cancer that develop from lymphocytes , a type of white blood cell. Treatment depends on whether the lymphoma is slow- or fast-growing and if it is in one area or many areas. In , about 4. The signs and symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma vary depending upon its location within the body. Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes , fever , night sweats , weight loss, and tiredness. Other symptoms may include bone pain, chest pain, or itchiness.
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