Knowledge About Pakistan Important And Universal Mcq About Pakistan In Pdf

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Physics Mcq Questions And Answers. What to say: "I'm a total perfectionist - I sometimes spend too long agonising over work to get it just right.

Kladionice KORNER

Multiple Choice Questions MCQs are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. In recent years, there has been much discussion about what should be taught to medical students and how they should be assessed.

In addition, highly publicized instances of the poor performance of medical doctors have fuelled the drive to find a way for ensuring that qualified doctors achieve and maintain appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes throughout their working lives.

It is important that individuals learn from any assessment process and receive feedback on which to build their knowledge and skills. It is also important for an assessment to have a summative function to demonstrate competence. Assessment may act as a trigger, informing examinees what instructors really regard as important 3 and the value they attach to different forms of knowledge and ways of thinking. Staff subsequently, redesign their methods of assessment to ensure a match between assessment forms and their educational goals.

Methods of assessment of medical students and practicing doctors have changed considerably during the last 5 decades. When designing assessments of medical competencies, a number of issues need to be addressed; reliability, which refers to the reproducibility or consistency of a test score, validity, which refers to the extent to which a test measures what it purports to measure, 11 , 12 and standard setting which defines the endpoint of the assessment.

Validity requires the selection of appropriate test formats for the competencies to be tested. This invariably requires a composite examination. Reliability, however, requires an adequate sample of the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes to be tested. Other factors such as cost, suitability, and safety have profound influences on the selection of an assessment method and, most probably, constitute the major reason for inter-institutional variations for the selection of assessment methods as well success rates.

Examiners need to use a variety of test formats when organizing test papers; each format being selected on account of its strength as regards to validity, reliability, objectivity and feasibility. For as long as there is a need to test knowledge in the assessment of doctors and medical undergraduates, multiple choice questions MCQs will always play a role as a component in the assessment of clinical competence. Multiple choice questions were introduced into medical examinations in the s and have been shown to be more reliable in testing knowledge than the traditional essay questions.

It represents one of the most important well-established examination tools widely used in assessment at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels of medical examinations. The MCQ is an objective question for which there is prior agreement on what constitutes the correct answer. This widespread use may have led examiners to use the term MCQ as synonym to an objective question.

Scoring of the questions is easy and reliable, and their use permits a wide sampling of student's knowledge in an examination of reasonable duration. It is generally, agreed that MCQs should not be used as a sole assessment method in summative examinations, but alongside other test forms. They are designed to broaden the range of skills to be tested during all phases of medical education, whether undergraduate, postgraduate or continuing. Though writing the questions requires considerable effort, their high objectivity makes it possible for the results to be released immediately after marking by anyone including a machine.

However, a notable concern of many health professionals is that they are frequently faced with the task of constructing tests with little or no experience or training on how to perform this task.

Examiners need to spend considerable time and effort to produce satisfactory questions. The first step for writing any exam is to have a blueprint table of specifications.

Blueprinting is the planning of the test against the learning objectives of a course or competencies essential to a specialty. Example of a table of specifications Blueprint based on the context, for Internal Medicine examination.

For example, abdominal pain, back pain, chest pain, dizziness, fatigue, fever, etc, 23 and then select one theme topic from the list. When choosing a topic for a question, the focus should be on one important concept, typically a common or a serious and treatable clinical problem from the specialty.

After choosing the topic, an appropriate context for the question is chosen. The context defines the clinical situation that will test the topic. This is important because it determines the type of information that should be included in the stem and the response options. The basic MCQ model comprises a stem and a lead-in question followed by a number of answers options. For writing a single best option type of MCQs, as shown in Appendix 1 , it is recommended that the options are written first.

The options should be readily understood and as short as possible. A good distracter should be inferior to the correct answer but should also be plausible to a non-competent candidate. The examiner would ask for the most appropriate, most common, least harmful or any other feature which is at the uppermost or lowermost point in a range.

It needs to be expressed clearly that only one answer is correct. When creating a distracter, it helps to predict how an inexperienced examinee might react to the clinical case described in the stem. A question stem is then written with lead-in statement based on the selected correct option.

Well-constructed MCQs should test the application of medical knowledge context-rich rather than just the recall of information context- free. Schuwirth et al, 25 found that context-rich questions lead to thinking processes which represent problem solving ability better than those elicited by context-free questions. The focus should be on problems that would be encountered in clinical practice rather than an assessment of the candidate's knowledge of trivial facts or obscure problems that are seldom encountered.

The types of problems that commonly encountered in one's own practice can provide good examples for the development of questions. To make testing both fair and consequentially valid, MCQs should be used strategically to test important content, and clinical competence.

The clinical case should begin with the presentation of a problem and followed by relevant signs, symptoms, results of diagnostic studies, initial treatment, subsequent findings, etc. In essence, all the information that is necessary for a competent candidate to answer the question should be provided in the stem.

For example:. The lead-in question should give clear directions as to what the candidate should do to answer the question. Ambiguity and the use of imprecise terms should be avoided. Negative stems should be avoided, as should double negatives. Always, never and only are obviously contentious in an inexact science like medicine and should not be used.

Note that for Example 1, no task is presented to the candidate. This type of lead-in statement will often lead to an ambiguous or unfocused question. In the second example, the task is clear and will lead to a more focused question. To ensure that the lead-in question is well constructed, the question should be answerable without looking at the response options.

As a check, the response options should be covered and an attempt made to answer the question. Well constructed MCQs should be written at a level of difficulty appropriate to level of the candidates. However, most tests would function with greater test reliability when questions of medium difficulty are used.

Questions used here will be correctly answered by nearly all the candidates and consequently, will have high difficulty index values. On the other hand, if a few candidates are to be selected for honours, scholarships, etc. It is important to bear in mind that the level of learning is the only factor that should determine the ability of a candidate to answer a question correctly.

The next step is to reduce the list of option to the intended number of options which is usually five options including, of course, the correct answer. Lastly, the option list is to be arranged into a logical order to reduce guessing and avoid putting the correct answer in habitual location e. The role of guessing in answering MCQs has been debated extensively and a variety of approaches have been suggested to deal with the candidate who responds to questions without possessing the required level of knowledge.

Increasing the number of questions in a test paper will reduce the probability of passing the test by chance. Once the MCQs have been written, they should be criticized by as many people as possible and they should be reviewed after their use.

Many MCQs used in medical education contain undefined terms. Furthermore, there is a wide range of opinions among the examiners themselves about the meanings of such vague terms. It is easy to write items that look adequate but do not constitute proper English or do not make sense. When constructing a paper from a bank of MCQs, care should be taken to ensure that there is a balanced spread of questions across the subject matter of the discipline being tested.

Several analytic approaches have been used to obtain the optimal number of response options for multiple-choice items. Extended-matching items are multiple choice items organized into sets that use one list of options for all items in the set. There is a theme, an option list, a lead-in statement and at least two item stems.

A typical set of EMIs begins with an option list of four to 26 options; more than ten options are usually used. The option list is followed by two or more patient-based items requiring the examinee to indicate a clinical decision for each item. The candidate is asked to match one or more options to each item stem. Extended matching items have become popular in such specialties as internal and family medicine because they can be used to test diagnostic ability and clinical judgment.

EMIs are more difficult, more reliable, more discriminating, and capable of reducing the testing time. In addition, they are quicker and easier to write than other test formats.

Another more recent development is uncued questions where answers are picked from a list of several hundred choices. These have been advocated for use in assessing clinical judgment, 43 but extended matching questions have surprisingly been shown to be as statistically reliable and valid as uncued queries. Extended matching questions overcome the problem of cueing by increasing the number of options and are a compromise between free-response questions and MCQs. This offers an objective assessment that is both reliable and easy to mark.

Nevertheless, MCQs have strengths and weaknesses and those responsible for setting MCQ papers may consider investigating the viability and value of including some questions in the extended matching format.

Item writers should be encouraged to use the EMI format with a large number of options because of the efficiencies this approach affords in item preparation. For the construction of EMIs the following steps are suggested Appendix 2 :. Step 1: The selection of the system, the context, and the theme should be based on a blueprint. Otherwise, the following sequence should be followed:. Decide on the system or specialty e. Decide on the context e.

Diagnosis, laboratory investigations, aetiology, therapy or prognosis. Example: Which is the best specimen to send to the Microbiology laboratory for confirmation of the diagnosis? Step 3: Prepare the options: Make a list of homogenous options.

For example, they should all be diagnoses, managements, blood gas values, enzymes, prognoses, etc, and each should be short normally only one or two words. Step 5: The question stems or scenarios: Write two to three vignettes case scenarios that suit the selected options, to form the question stem.

Physics Mcq Questions And Answers

King: Economics Multiple choice questions. Chapter wise Multiple Choice Questions MCQs are being given by teachers to students to make them understand the chapter concepts. Income d. Growth 3. Non material things. Download Mcqs in Pdf for free.

It is very tough to select only a few GK questions for kids as it is a vast area and in fact boundless. Some of the gk questions may seem too simple for higher class students but it is always good to revise what you know before you add in more information to your knowledge base. Children belonging to this age group are curious about everything in their surroundings. So engaging with General Knowledge questions will be a great help for them. Here we have included some simple GK Questions for kids to explore and expand their General Knowledge level.

Here is the list of Important Pakistan Current Affairs MCQS for the preparation Pakistan General Information MCQs · General Knowledge Pakistan Q. ______ becomes first province to introduce universal health coverage.

Solved Objective question[MCQ] paper for Preliminary Exam: Higher Judicial Service 2020- 1st Set

Multiple Choice Questions MCQs are generally recognized as the most widely applicable and useful type of objective test items. They could be used to measure the most important educational outcomes - knowledge, understanding, judgment and problem solving. The objective of this paper is to give guidelines for the construction of MCQs tests. In recent years, there has been much discussion about what should be taught to medical students and how they should be assessed. In addition, highly publicized instances of the poor performance of medical doctors have fuelled the drive to find a way for ensuring that qualified doctors achieve and maintain appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes throughout their working lives.

Education in Pakistan MCQs

Which of the following study determine prevalence of diseases?

ФБР имеет возможность прослушивать телефонные разговоры, но это вовсе не значит, что оно прослушивает. - Будь у них штат побольше, прослушивали. Сьюзан оставила это замечание без ответа. - У правительств должно быть право собирать информацию, в которой может содержаться угроза общественной безопасности. - Господи Иисусе! - шумно вздохнул Хейл.

Мысли ее вернулись к Дэвиду. Сьюзен надеялась, что с ним все в порядке. Ей трудно было поверить, что он в Испании.

 - Я сегодня улетаю. Офицер был шокирован. - Вы же только что прибыли. - Да, но человек, оплативший авиабилет, ждет. Я должен доставить эти вещи.

 - Я хочу быть абсолютно уверен, что это абсолютно стойкий шифр.

Вернулся ли Дэвид. Она помнила его тело, прижавшееся к ее телу, его нежные поцелуи. Неужели все это был сон. Сьюзан повернулась к тумбочке. На ней стояли пустая бутылка из-под шампанского, два бокала… и лежала записка.

 Скажи, что ты ушел с поста декана. Дэвид кивнул. - В следующем семестре я возвращаюсь в аудиторию. Сьюзан с облегчением вздохнула: - Туда, где твое подлинное призвание. Дэвид улыбнулся: - Да.

Джабба посмотрел на таблицу, что стояла на мониторе, и всплеснул руками. - Здесь около сотни пунктов. Мы не можем вычесть их все одно из другого. - Многие пункты даны не в числовой форме, - подбодрила людей Сьюзан.  - Их мы можем проигнорировать.

 - Я, конечно, предположил, что это не та Северная Дакота, которую мы ищем, но на всякий случай проверил эту запись. Представь себе мое изумление, когда я обнаружил множество сообщений Энсея Танкадо.

 - Я понял, что Цифровую крепость не следует останавливать. Сьюзан смотрела на него в растерянности. Стратмор продолжал: - Внезапно я увидел в Цифровой крепости шанс, который выпадает раз в жизни.

 - Мы прибываем через полчаса. Беккер мрачно кивнул невидимому голосу. Замечательно. Он опустил шторку иллюминатора и попытался вздремнуть.

 Коммандер, - она снова попыталась настоять на своем, - нам нужно поговорить. - Минутку! - отрезал Стратмор, вопросительно глядя на Хейла.  - Мне нужно закончить разговор.

 Давайте же, - прошептал Фонтейн.  - Вычитайте, да побыстрее.

Он улыбнулся, стараясь ее успокоить. - С Дэвидом все в порядке. Просто мне приходится быть крайне осторожным. В тридцати футах от них, скрытый за стеклом односторонней видимости Грег Хейл стоял у терминала Сьюзан. Черный экран.

Он был потрясен. Мидж и Бринкерхофф охнули в унисон. - Ну и чертовщина. Перед глазами возник текст: PRIMEDIFFERENCEBETWEEN ELEMENTSRESPONSIBLE FORHIROSHIMAANDNAGASAKI - Введите пробелы, - приказала Сьюзан.

Беккер кивнул. - Так, значит, вы не по поводу моей колонки. - Нет, сэр. Казалось, старик испытал сильнейшее разочарование.

 Нет. Но если он посмотрит на монитор и увидит в окне отсчета значение семнадцать часов, то, будьте уверены, не промолчит.


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