Ancient Near Eastern History And Culture Pdf
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- Life and Thought in the Ancient Near East
- Ancient Near Eastern History And Culture 3rd Edition Pdf
- Professorship in Ancient Near Eastern Studies
- Culture and History of the Ancient Near East
Life and Thought in the Ancient Near East
The history of the ancient Near East begins with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, though the date it ends varies. The ancient Near East is considered  one of the cradles of civilization. It was here that intensive year-round agriculture was first practiced, leading to the rise of the first dense urban settlements and the development of many familiar institutions of civilization, such as social stratification , centralized government and empires , organized religion and organized warfare.
It also saw the creation of the first writing system , the first alphabet abjad , the first currency in history, and law codes , early advances that laid the foundations of astronomy and mathematics , and the invention of the wheel.
During the period, states became increasingly large, until the region became controlled by militaristic empires that had conquered a number of different cultures.
The phrase "ancient Near East" denotes the 19th-century distinction between Near East and Far East as global regions of interest to the British Empire. The distinction began during the Crimean War. The last major exclusive partition of the east between these two terms was current in diplomacy in the late 19th century, with the Hamidian Massacres of the Armenians and Assyrians by the Ottoman Empire in — and the First Sino-Japanese War of — The two theatres were described by the statesmen and advisors of the British Empire as "the Near East" and "the Far East".
Shortly after, they were to share the stage with Middle East , which came to prevail in the 20th century and continues in modern times. As Near East had meant the lands of the Ottoman Empire at roughly its maximum extent, on the fall of that empire, the use of Near East in diplomacy was reduced significantly in favor of the Middle East.
Meanwhile, the ancient Near East had become distinct. The Ottoman rule over the Near East ranged from Vienna to the north to the tip of the Arabian Peninsula to the south , from Egypt in the west to the borders of Iraq in the east.
The 19th-century archaeologists added Iran to their definition, which was never under the Ottomans, but they excluded all of Europe and, generally, Egypt, which had parts in the empire.
Ancient Near East periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks, or eras, of the Near East. The result is a descriptive abstraction that provides a useful handle on Near East periods of time with relatively stable characteristics. The Uruk period c. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization.
Africa , Near East c. Indian subcontinent c. Europe c. Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. The Akkadian Empire , founded by Sargon the Great , lasted from the 24th to the 21st century BC, and was regarded by many as the world's first empire.
The Akkadians eventually fragmented into Assyria and Babylonia. Ancient Elam lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad , in the far west and southwest of modern-day Iran , stretching from the lowlands of Khuzestan and Ilam Province. In the Old Elamite period, c. Elam was absorbed into the Assyrian Empire in the 9th to 7th centuries BC; however, the civilization endured up until BC when it was finally overrun by the Iranian Persians.
The Proto-Elamite civilization existed from c. In archaeological terms, this corresponds to the late Banesh period. This civilization is recognized as the oldest in Iran and was largely contemporary with its neighbour, the Sumerian civilization.
The Proto-Elamite script is an Early Bronze Age writing system briefly in use for the ancient Elamite language which was a Language isolate before the introduction of Elamite Cuneiform. The Amorites were a nomadic Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the 3rd millennium BC.
The Hurrians lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. Their known homeland was centred on Subartu , the Khabur River valley, and later they established themselves as rulers of small kingdoms throughout northern Mesopotamia and Syria.
The largest and most influential Hurrian nation was the kingdom of Mitanni. The Hurrians played a substantial part in the history of the Hittites. Ishuwa was an ancient kingdom in Anatolia.
In the classical period, the land was a part of Armenia. Ishuwa was one of the places where agriculture developed very early on in the Neolithic.
Urban centres emerged in the upper Euphrates river valley around BC. The first states followed in the third millennium BC. The name Ishuwa is not known until the literate period of the second millennium BC. Few literate sources from within Ishuwa have been discovered and the primary source material comes from Hittite texts.
To the west of Ishuwa lay the kingdom of the Hittites , and this nation was an untrustworthy neighbour. The Hittite king Hattusili I c. This corresponds well with burnt destruction layers discovered by archaeologists at town sites in Ishuwa of roughly the same date. After the end of the Hittite empire in the early 12th century BC a new state emerged in Ishuwa. The city of Malatya became the centre of one of the so-called Neo-Hittite kingdom.
The movement of nomadic people may have weakened the kingdom of Malatya before the final Assyrian invasion. The decline of the settlements and culture in Ishuwa from the 7th century BC until the Roman period was probably caused by this movement of people.
The Armenians later settled in the area since they were natives of the Armenian Plateau and related to the earlier inhabitants of Ishuwa. Kizzuwatna was a kingdom of the second millennium BC, situated in the highlands of southeastern Anatolia, near the Gulf of İskenderun in modern-day Turkey , encircling the Taurus Mountains and the Ceyhan river.
The centre of the kingdom was the city of Kummanni , situated in the highlands. In a later era, the same region was known as Cilicia. Luwian is an extinct language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. Luwian speakers gradually spread through Anatolia and became a contributing factor to the downfall, after c. Luwian was also the language spoken in the Neo-Hittite states of Syria, such as Melid and Carchemish , as well as in the central Anatolian kingdom of Tabal that flourished around BC.
Luwian has been preserved in two forms, named after the writing systems used to represent them: Cuneiform Luwian, and Hieroglyphic Luwian. It is thought to have been inhabited since the 5th millennium BC, although it flourished from BC until BC, when it was sacked by Hammurabi. Mitanni was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from c. The Mitanni kingdom is thought to have been a feudal state led by a warrior nobility of Indo-Aryan descent, who invaded the Levant region at some point during the 17th century BC, their influence apparent in a linguistic superstratum in Mitanni records.
The spread to Syria of a distinct pottery type associated with the Kura-Araxes culture has been connected with this movement, although its date is somewhat too early. A substantial Hurrian population also settled in the kingdom, and the Hurrian culture influenced the area. The kingdom was powerful during the Middle Bronze Age , c. Its biggest rival was Qatna further south. Yamhad was finally destroyed by the Hittites in the 16th century BC. The Aramaeans were a Semitic West Semitic language group , semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria.
Aramaeans have never had a unified empire; they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East. Yet to these Aramaeans befell the privilege of imposing their language and culture upon the entire Near East and beyond, fostered in part by the mass relocations enacted by successive empires, including the Assyrians and Babylonians. Scholars even have used the term 'Aramaization' for the Assyro-Babylonian peoples' languages and cultures, that have become Aramaic-speaking.
The Sea peoples is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders of the second millennium BC who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty , and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty.
The Bronze Age collapse is the name given by those historians who see the transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age as violent, sudden and culturally disruptive, expressed by the collapse of palace economies of the Aegean and Anatolia, which were replaced after a hiatus by the isolated village cultures of the Dark Age period in history of the ancient Middle East. Some have gone so far as to call the catalyst that ended the Bronze Age a "catastrophe".
In the first phase of this period, almost every city between Troy and Gaza was violently destroyed, and often left unoccupied thereafter for example, Hattusas , Mycenae , Ugarit. Ancient Near East — BC. South Asia — BC. Iron metallurgy in Africa. Iron Age metallurgy Ancient iron production. In the Middle Assyrian period of the Late Bronze Age, Assyria had been a kingdom of northern Mesopotamia modern-day northern Iraq , competing for dominance with its southern Mesopotamian rival Babylonia.
From — it had been a major imperial power, rivaling Egypt and the Hittite Empire. Beginning with the campaign of Adad-nirari II , it became a vast empire, overthrowing 25th dynasty Egypt and conquering Egypt, the Middle East, and large swaths of Asia Minor , ancient Iran , the Caucasus and east Mediterranean.
Some scholars, such as Richard Nelson Frye , regard the Neo-Assyrian Empire to be the first real empire in human history. Urartu was an ancient kingdom of Armenia and North Mesopotamia  which existed from c. The Kingdom of Urartu was located in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor , the Iranian Plateau , Mesopotamia, and the Caucasus mountains , later known as the Armenian Highland , and it centered on Lake Van present-day eastern Turkey.
The name corresponds to the Biblical Ararat. Through the centuries of Assyrian domination, Babylonia enjoyed a prominent status, and revolted at the slightest indication that it did not. However, the Assyrians always managed to restore Babylonian loyalty, whether through the granting of increased privileges, or militarily. That finally changed in BC with the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Ashurbanipal , and Babylonia rebelled under Nabopolassar the Chaldean a few years later.
In alliance with the Medes and Scythians , Nineveh was sacked in and Harran in BC, and the seat of empire was again transferred to Babylonia.
Following the fall of the Medes, the Achaemenid Empire was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over most of the Near East and far beyond, and the second great Iranian empire after the Median Empire. At the height of its power, encompassing approximately 7. Ancient civilizations in the Near East were deeply influenced by their spiritual beliefs, which generally did not distinguish between heaven and Earth.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East. Main article: Near East. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Chronology of the ancient Near East.
Age of the human race Recorded history. Earliest records Protohistory Proto-writing.
Ancient Near Eastern History And Culture 3rd Edition Pdf
The history of the ancient Near East begins with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC, though the date it ends varies. The ancient Near East is considered  one of the cradles of civilization. It was here that intensive year-round agriculture was first practiced, leading to the rise of the first dense urban settlements and the development of many familiar institutions of civilization, such as social stratification , centralized government and empires , organized religion and organized warfare. It also saw the creation of the first writing system , the first alphabet abjad , the first currency in history, and law codes , early advances that laid the foundations of astronomy and mathematics , and the invention of the wheel. During the period, states became increasingly large, until the region became controlled by militaristic empires that had conquered a number of different cultures.
Organized by the periods, kingdoms, and empires generally used in ancient Near Eastern political history, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture interlaces.
Professorship in Ancient Near Eastern Studies
Description: The Harvard Museum of the ancient Near East has produced a sketchfab gallery of objects. Description: Ancient Egyptian Architecture Online provides vetted and standardized architectural drawings of a selection of ancient Egyptian buildings. Assyrian Collection of the British Museum.
How to publish with Brill. Fonts, Scripts and Unicode. Brill MyBook. Ordering from Brill.
Jetzt bewerten Jetzt bewerten. Organized by the periods, kingdoms, and empires generally used in ancient Near Eastern political history, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture interlaces social and cultural history with a political narrative. Charts, figures, maps, and historical documents introduce the reader to the material world of the ancient Near East, including Egypt.
Culture and History of the Ancient Near East
London: MacMillan ; Frankfort, H. There is a very wide choice in textbooks for students, scholars, and the general audience interested in the history of the Ancient Near East. Ancient history - study of recorded human history from the beginning of writing at about BC until the Early Middle Ages. Ancient DNA has allowed us to begin tracing the history of human movements across the globe.
Эта абракадабра представляла собой зашифрованный текст: за группами букв и цифр прятались слова. Задача дешифровщиков состояла в том, чтобы, изучив его, получить оригинальный, или так называемый открытый, текст. АНБ пригласило Беккера, потому что имелось подозрение, что оригинал был написан на мандаринском диалекте китайского языка, и ему предстояло переводить иероглифы по мере их дешифровки. В течение двух часов Беккер переводил бесконечный поток китайских иероглифов.