Broadcast Routing And Spanning Trees Ppt To Pdf

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broadcast routing and spanning trees ppt to pdf

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Flooding is used in computer networks routing algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent through every outgoing link except the one it arrived on.

Computer Network Network Layer PPT

When a device has multiple paths to reach a destination, it always selects one path by preferring it over others. This selection process is termed as Routing. Routing is done by special network devices called routers or it can be done by means of software processes. The software based routers have limited functionality and limited scope.

A router is always configured with some default route. A default route tells the router where to forward a packet if there is no route found for specific destination. In case there are multiple path existing to reach the same destination, router can make decision based on the following information:. Routes can be statically configured or dynamically learnt. One route can be configured to be preferred over others.

Most of the traffic on the internet and intranets known as unicast data or unicast traffic is sent with specified destination.

Routing unicast data over the internet is called unicast routing. It is the simplest form of routing because the destination is already known. Hence the router just has to look up the routing table and forward the packet to next hop. By default, the broadcast packets are not routed and forwarded by the routers on any network. Routers create broadcast domains. But it can be configured to forward broadcasts in some special cases.

A broadcast message is destined to all network devices. A router creates a data packet and then sends it to each host one by one. In this case, the router creates multiple copies of single data packet with different destination addresses. All packets are sent as unicast but because they are sent to all, it simulates as if router is broadcasting.

Secondly, when router receives a packet that is to be broadcasted, it simply floods those packets out of all interfaces. All routers are configured in the same way. This method is easy on router's CPU but may cause the problem of duplicate packets received from peer routers.

Reverse path forwarding is a technique, in which router knows in advance about its predecessor from where it should receive broadcast. This technique is used to detect and discard duplicates. Multicast routing is special case of broadcast routing with significance difference and challenges.

In broadcast routing, packets are sent to all nodes even if they do not want it. But in Multicast routing, the data is sent to only nodes which wants to receive the packets. The router must know that there are nodes, which wish to receive multicast packets or stream then only it should forward.

Multicast routing works spanning tree protocol to avoid looping. Multicast routing also uses reverse path Forwarding technique, to detect and discard duplicates and loops. Anycast packet forwarding is a mechanism where multiple hosts can have same logical address.

When a packet destined to this logical address is received, it is sent to the host which is nearest in routing topology. Anycast routing is done with help of DNS server.

Whenever an Anycast packet is received it is enquired with DNS to where to send it. Distance Vector is simple routing protocol which takes routing decision on the number of hops between source and destination. A route with less number of hops is considered as the best route. Every router advertises its set best routes to other routers. Ultimately, all routers build up their network topology based on the advertisements of their peer routers,.

Link State protocol is slightly complicated protocol than Distance Vector. It takes into account the states of links of all the routers in a network. This technique helps routes build a common graph of the entire network.

All routers then calculate their best path for routing purposes. Unicast routing protocols use graphs while Multicast routing protocols use trees, i. The optimal tree is called shortest path spanning tree.

Flooding is simplest method packet forwarding. When a packet is received, the routers send it to all the interfaces except the one on which it was received. This creates too much burden on the network and lots of duplicate packets wandering in the network. Time to Live TTL can be used to avoid infinite looping of packets.

There exists another approach for flooding, which is called Selective Flooding to reduce the overhead on the network. In this method, the router does not flood out on all the interfaces, but selective ones. Routing decision in networks, are mostly taken on the basis of cost between source and destination.

Hop count plays major role here. Shortest path is a technique which uses various algorithms to decide a path with minimum number of hops.

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Flooding (computer networking)

Virtual Circuit. Issue Datagram Virtual Circuit VC Circuit Setup Not needed Required Addressing Each packet contains the full Each packet contains a short source and destination address VC number State Subnet does not hold state Each VC requires subnet table information information space Routing Each packet is routed Route chosen when a VC is set independently up; all packets follow this route Effect of router None, except for packets lost All VCs that passed through the failures during the crash failed router are terminated Congestion Difficult Easy if enough buffers can be control allocated in advance for each VC. The network is defined from the point of view of the network layer. Discover its neighbors and learn their network addresses. Measure the delay or cost to each of its neighbors. Construct a packet telling all it has just learned.

Digital certificate D. None of these Answer: A, The address field of a frame in HDLC protocol contains the address of the ……………… station. Answer: C, Answer: C. ARP D. Asymmetric Dual System Line C.

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Routing Algorithm

When a device has multiple paths to reach a destination, it always selects one path by preferring it over others. This selection process is termed as Routing. Routing is done by special network devices called routers or it can be done by means of software processes. The software based routers have limited functionality and limited scope.

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Computer Network Network Layer PPT

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