First Second And Third Wave Feminism Pdf
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A Brief History: The Four Waves of Feminism
The issues that divided early suffragettes still plague women today. For all the forward progress that has been made, women's rights activists have also taken steps backwards. Feminism, as a movement, has not done a good job at being inclusive of minorities. Women of color have been left on the peripheries while feminism has largely catered solely to white viewpoints. Feminism is spoken of in waves - first wave feminism encompasses the suffragettes of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century - the women who fought for the right to vote. Second wave feminism generally encapsulates the period from the s to the s.
Written By: Sally Ann Drucker. The term feminism describes political, cultural, and economic movements that aim to establish equal rights and legal protections for women. Feminist history can be divided into three waves. The third wave, beginning in the s, refers to a continuation of, and a reaction to, second-wave feminism. First-wave feminism promoted equal contract and property rights for women, opposing ownership of married women by their husbands. By the late 19th century, feminist activism was primarily focused on the right to vote.
However, empowered by the constant connectivity of the internet and the strength of the MeToo movement, a new wave of feminists are speaking out in record numbers against discrimination. A new era for feminism has begun, full of passion, social-influencing power, and demanding change. Often taken for granted, women in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, realized that they must first gain political power including the right to vote to bring about change was how to fuel the fire. Their political agenda expanded to issues concerning sexual, reproductive and economic matters. The seed was planted that women have the potential to contribute just as much if not more than men. Coming off the heels of World War II, the second wave of feminism focused on the workplace, sexuality, family and reproductive rights. During a time when the United States was already trying to restructure itself, it was perceived that women had met their equality goals with the exception of the failure of the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment which has still yet to be passed.
History and theory of feminism The term feminism can be used to describe a political, cultural or economic movement aimed at establishing equal rights and legal protection for women. Feminism involves political and sociological theories and philosophies concerned with issues of gender difference, as well as a movement that advocates gender equality for women and campaigns for women's rights and interests. Although the terms "feminism" and "feminist" did not gain widespread use until the s, they were already being used in the public parlance much earlier; for instance, Katherine Hepburn speaks of the "feminist movement" in the film Woman of the Year. According to Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, the history of feminism can be divided into three waves. The first feminist wave was in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second was in the s and s, and the third extends from the s to the present. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements.
Feminism, a belief in the political, economic and cultural equality of women, has roots in the earliest eras of human civilization. Years later, during the Enlightenment , writers and philosophers like Margaret Cavendish, the Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and Mary Wollstonecraft , author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman , argued vigorously for greater equality for women. Women's History. Indeed, many women leaders of the abolitionist movement found an unsettling irony in advocating for African Americans rights that they themselves could not enjoy. Many attendees thought voting rights for women were beyond the pale, but were swayed when Frederick Douglass argued that he could not accept the right to vote as a Black man if women could not also claim that right. Slowly, suffragettes began to claim some successes: In , New Zealand became the first sovereign state giving women the right to vote, followed by Australia in and Finland in
The third wave of feminism emerged in the mids. Although they benefitted significantly from the legal rights and protections that had been obtained by first- and second-wave feminists, they also critiqued the positions and what they felt was unfinished work of second-wave feminism. The third wave was made possible by the greater economic and professional power and status achieved by women of the second wave, the massive expansion in opportunities for the dissemination of ideas created by the information revolution of the late 20th century, and the coming of age of Generation X scholars and activists. Some early adherents of the new approach were literally daughters of the second wave. Jennifer Baumgardner and Amy Richards, authors of Manifesta: Young Women, Feminism, and the Future , were both born in and raised by second wavers who had belonged to organized feminist groups, questioned the sexual division of labour in their households, and raised their daughters to be self-aware, empowered, articulate , high-achieving women.
Jump to navigation. Use extreme caution outdoors. More details. Her specialty is the early medieval period with an emphasis on social history and the activities and roles of women. She holds an MA in medieval history from the University of Utah and a doctorate in medieval history from the University of Virginia.
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Он увидел кое-что другое.