Erikson 1968 Identity Youth And Crisis Pdf

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Erik H. Erikson - Identity Youth and Crisis 1(1968, W. W. Norton & Company) (1)

Erik Homburger Erikson born Erik Salomonsen ; 15 June — 12 May was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. His son, Kai T. Erikson , is a noted American sociologist. Despite lacking a bachelor's degree, Erikson served as a professor at prominent institutions, including Harvard , University of California, Berkeley , [9] and Yale.

A Review of General Psychology survey, published in , ranked Erikson as the 12th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. She was married to Jewish stockbroker Valdemar Isidor Salomonsen, but had been estranged from him for several months at the time Erik was conceived.

Little is known about Erik's biological father except that he was a non-Jewish Dane. On discovering her pregnancy, Karla fled to Frankfurt am Main in Germany where Erik was born on 15 June and was given the surname Salomonsen. Following Erik's birth, Karla trained to be a nurse and moved to Karlsruhe. In she married Erik's Jewish pediatrician , Theodor Homburger. In , Erik Salomonsen's name was changed to Erik Homburger, and in he was officially adopted by his stepfather.

The development of identity seems to have been one of Erikson's greatest concerns in his own life as well as being central to his theoretical work. As an older adult, he wrote about his adolescent "identity confusion" in his European days. Erik was a tall, blond, blue-eyed boy who was raised in the Jewish religion.

Due to these mixed identities, he was a target of bigotry by both Jewish and gentile children. At temple school, his peers teased him for being Nordic ; while at grammar school, he was teased for being Jewish. Uncertain about his vocation and his fit in society, Erik dropped out of school and began a lengthy period of roaming about Germany and Italy as a wandering artist with his childhood friend Peter Blos and others. For children from prominent German families taking a "wandering year" was not uncommon.

During his travels he often sold or traded his sketches to people he met. Eventually, Erik realized he would never become a full-time artist and returned to Karlsruhe and became an art teacher. During the time he worked at his teaching job Erik was hired by an heiress to sketch and eventually tutor her children. Erik worked very well with these children and was eventually hired by many other families that were close to Anna and Sigmund Freud. When Erikson was twenty-five, his friend Peter Blos invited him to Vienna to tutor art [9] at the small Burlingham-Rosenfeld School for children whose affluent parents were undergoing psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud 's daughter, Anna Freud.

He specialized in child analysis and underwent a training analysis with Anna Freud. Helene Deutsch and Edward Bibring supervised his initial treatment of an adult. This and his Montessori diploma were to be Erikson's only earned academic credentials for his life's work. In , Erikson left Harvard and joined the staff at Yale University , where he worked at the Institute of Social Relations and taught at the medical school. Erikson continued to deepen his interest in areas beyond psychoanalysis and to explore connections between psychology and anthropology.

In , he left Yale to study the Sioux tribe in South Dakota on their reservation. After his studies in South Dakota he traveled to California to study the Yurok tribe. Erikson discovered differences between the children of the Sioux and Yurok tribe. This marked the beginning of Erikson's life passion of showing the importance of events in childhood and how society affects them. In he left Yale, and the Eriksons moved to California, where Erik had been invited to join a team engaged in a longitudinal study of child development for the University of California at Berkeley 's Institute of Child Welfare.

In addition, in San Francisco he opened a private practice in child psychoanalysis. While in California he was able to make his second study of American Indian children when he joined anthropologist Alfred Kroeber on a field trip to Northern California to study the Yurok. In , after publishing the book, Childhood and Society , for which he is best known, Erikson left the University of California when California's Levering Act required professors there to sign loyalty oaths.

Another famous Stockbridge resident, Norman Rockwell , became Erikson's patient and friend. He returned to Harvard in the s as a professor of human development and remained there until his retirement in In the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Erikson for the Jefferson Lecture , the United States' highest honor for achievement in the humanities.

Erikson's lecture was titled Dimensions of a New Identity. Erikson is also credited with being one of the originators of ego psychology , which stressed the role of the ego as being more than a servant of the id. Although Erikson accepted Freud's theory, he did not focus on the parent-child relationship and gave more importance to the role of the ego, particularly the person's progression as self. Erikson won a Pulitzer Prize [32] and a US National Book Award in category Philosophy and Religion [33] for Gandhi's Truth , which focused more on his theory as applied to later phases in the life cycle.

In Erikson's discussion of development, rarely did he mention a stage of development by age but in fact did refer to a prolonged adolescence which has led to further investigation into a period of development between adolescence and young adulthood called emerging adulthood. Favorable outcomes of each stage are sometimes known as virtues , a term used in the context of Erikson's work as it is applied to medicine, meaning "potencies".

These virtues are also interpreted to be the same as "strengths", which are considered inherent in the individual life cycle and in the sequence of generations. Only when both extremes in a life-stage challenge are understood and accepted as both required and useful, can the optimal virtue for that stage surface. Thus, 'trust' and 'mis-trust' must both be understood and accepted, in order for realistic 'hope' to emerge as a viable solution at the first stage.

Similarly, 'integrity' and 'despair' must both be understood and embraced, in order for actionable 'wisdom' to emerge as a viable solution at the last stage.

The Eriksons had four children, the eldest of whom is the sociologist Kai T. Jon Erikson. Their daughter, Sue Erikson Bloland, "an integrative psychotherapist and psychoanalyst", [41] described her father as plagued by "lifelong feelings of personal inadequacy". Erikson died on 12 May in Harwich, Massachusetts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people with similar names, see Eric Erickson disambiguation. Frankfurt , Hesse , Germany [1].

Harwich , Massachusetts , U. American German. Joan Serson Erikson. Kai T. Pulitzer Prize National Book Award Developmental psychology psychoanalysis. Fowler [7] Howard Gardner [8] James Marcia. Main article: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The New York Times. Retrieved 19 October Simply Psychology. Retrieved 20 October Harvard Gazette. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University. Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 30 August Erikson Institute. Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 11 March December The Journal of American History.

New York Times. George []. Shippensburg, Pennsylvania: Shippensburg University. Schaum's Outline of Psychiatric Nursing. The Pulitzer Prizes. New York: Columbia University. New York: National Book Foundation. Retrieved 8 March New York: W. Cited in Engler , p. New Philosopher. Interviewed by Boag, Zan. Jewish World Review. Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen American Psychologist. Burston, Daniel Lanham, Maryland: Jason Aronson.

Erikson, Erik H.

Erik Homburger Erikson born Erik Salomonsen ; 15 June — 12 May was a German-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychological development of human beings. He may be most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis. His son, Kai T. Erikson , is a noted American sociologist. Despite lacking a bachelor's degree, Erikson served as a professor at prominent institutions, including Harvard , University of California, Berkeley , [9] and Yale. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in , ranked Erikson as the 12th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.

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Erik H. Erikson - Identity Youth and Crisis 1(, W. W. Norton & Company) (1). Daniela Yui. Preface ONE oF MY TEACHERS in the Vienna Psychoanalytic.


Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson is best known for his famous theory of psychosocial development and the concept of the identity crisis. His theories marked an important shift in thinking on personality ; instead of focusing simply on early childhood events, his psychosocial theory looks at how social influences contribute to our personalities throughout our entire lifespans. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development generated interest and research on human development through the lifespan.

Identity, Youth and Crisis. Erik H. Erikson New York: W. Norton, Erickson has gathered material from many previous essays, including Childhood and Society, in order to explore further his concept of identity.

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