Types Of Joints And Bones And Their Types Of Movement Pdf

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Is this person double jointed? No; there is no such thing, at least as far as humans are concerned.

Joints hold the skeleton together and support movement. There are two ways to categorize joints. The first is by joint function, also referred to as range of motion. The second way to categorize joints is by the material that holds the bones of the joints together; that is an organization of joints by structure. Joints in the human skeleton can be grouped by function range of motion and by structure material.

Classification of Joints

The point at which two or more bones meet is called a joint , or articulation. Joints are responsible for movement, such as the movement of limbs, and stability, such as the stability found in the bones of the skull. There are two ways to classify joints: on the basis of their structure or on the basis of their function.

The structural classification divides joints into bony, fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints depending on the material composing the joint and the presence or absence of a cavity in the joint. The bones of fibrous joints are held together by fibrous connective tissue. There is no cavity, or space, present between the bones and so most fibrous joints do not move at all, or are only capable of minor movements.

There are three types of fibrous joints: sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses. Sutures are found only in the skull and possess short fibers of connective tissue that hold the skull bones tightly in place Figure 1. Syndesmoses are joints in which the bones are connected by a band of connective tissue, allowing for more movement than in a suture.

An example of a syndesmosis is the joint of the tibia and fibula in the ankle. The amount of movement in these types of joints is determined by the length of the connective tissue fibers.

Gomphoses occur between teeth and their sockets; the term refers to the way the tooth fits into the socket like a peg Figure 2. The tooth is connected to the socket by a connective tissue referred to as the periodontal ligament.

Figure 2. Gomphoses are fibrous joints between the teeth and their sockets. Cartilaginous joints are joints in which the bones are connected by cartilage. There are two types of cartilaginous joints: synchondroses and symphyses. In a synchondrosis , the bones are joined by hyaline cartilage.

Synchondroses are found in the epiphyseal plates of growing bones in children. In symphyses , hyaline cartilage covers the end of the bone but the connection between bones occurs through fibrocartilage.

Symphyses are found at the joints between vertebrae. Either type of cartilaginous joint allows for very little movement. Figure 3. Synovial joints are the only joints that have a space between the adjoining bones Figure 3.

This space is referred to as the synovial or joint cavity and is filled with synovial fluid. Synovial fluid lubricates the joint, reducing friction between the bones and allowing for greater movement. The ends of the bones are covered with articular cartilage, a hyaline cartilage, and the entire joint is surrounded by an articular capsule composed of connective tissue that allows movement of the joint while resisting dislocation. Articular capsules may also possess ligaments that hold the bones together.

Synovial joints are capable of the greatest movement of the three structural joint types; however, the more mobile a joint, the weaker the joint. Knees, elbows, and shoulders are examples of synovial joints. The functional classification divides joints into three categories: synarthroses, amphiarthroses, and diarthroses.

A synarthrosis is a joint that is immovable. This includes sutures, gomphoses, and synchondroses. Amphiarthroses are joints that allow slight movement, including syndesmoses and symphyses. Diarthroses are joints that allow for free movement of the joint, as in synovial joints.

The wide range of movement allowed by synovial joints produces different types of movements. The movement of synovial joints can be classified as one of four different types: gliding, angular, rotational, or special movement. Gliding movements occur as relatively flat bone surfaces move past each other.

Gliding movements produce very little rotation or angular movement of the bones. The joints of the carpal and tarsal bones are examples of joints that produce gliding movements. Angular movements are produced when the angle between the bones of a joint changes. There are several different types of angular movements, including flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction. Flexion , or bending, occurs when the angle between the bones decreases.

Moving the forearm upward at the elbow or moving the wrist to move the hand toward the forearm are examples of flexion. Extension is the opposite of flexion in that the angle between the bones of a joint increases. Straightening a limb after flexion is an example of extension. Extension past the regular anatomical position is referred to as hyperextension. This includes moving the neck back to look upward, or bending the wrist so that the hand moves away from the forearm.

Abduction occurs when a bone moves away from the midline of the body. Examples of abduction are moving the arms or legs laterally to lift them straight out to the side. Adduction is the movement of a bone toward the midline of the body. Movement of the limbs inward after abduction is an example of adduction.

Circumduction is the movement of a limb in a circular motion, as in moving the arm in a circular motion. Rotational movement is the movement of a bone as it rotates around its longitudinal axis. Rotation can be toward the midline of the body, which is referred to as medial rotation , or away from the midline of the body, which is referred to as lateral rotation. Movement of the head from side to side is an example of rotation.

Some movements that cannot be classified as gliding, angular, or rotational are called special movements. Inversion involves the soles of the feet moving inward, toward the midline of the body. Eversion is the opposite of inversion, movement of the sole of the foot outward, away from the midline of the body. Protraction is the anterior movement of a bone in the horizontal plane.

Retraction occurs as a joint moves back into position after protraction. Protraction and retraction can be seen in the movement of the mandible as the jaw is thrust outwards and then back inwards. Elevation is the movement of a bone upward, such as when the shoulders are shrugged, lifting the scapulae. Depression is the opposite of elevation—movement downward of a bone, such as after the shoulders are shrugged and the scapulae return to their normal position from an elevated position.

Dorsiflexion is a bending at the ankle such that the toes are lifted toward the knee. Plantar flexion is a bending at the ankle when the heel is lifted, such as when standing on the toes. Supination is the movement of the radius and ulna bones of the forearm so that the palm faces forward. Pronation is the opposite movement, in which the palm faces backward. Opposition is the movement of the thumb toward the fingers of the same hand, making it possible to grasp and hold objects. Synovial joints are further classified into six different categories on the basis of the shape and structure of the joint.

The shape of the joint affects the type of movement permitted by the joint Figure 4. These joints can be described as planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket joints. Figure 4. Different types of joints allow different types of movement. Planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, and ball-and-socket are all types of synovial joints.

Planar joints have bones with articulating surfaces that are flat or slightly curved faces. These joints allow for gliding movements, and so the joints are sometimes referred to as gliding joints.

The range of motion is limited in these joints and does not involve rotation. Planar joints are found in the carpal bones in the hand and the tarsal bones of the foot, as well as between vertebrae Figure 5. Figure 5. The joints of the carpal bones in the wrist are examples of planar joints.

In hinge joints , the slightly rounded end of one bone fits into the slightly hollow end of the other bone. In this way, one bone moves while the other remains stationary, like the hinge of a door.

The elbow is an example of a hinge joint. The knee is sometimes classified as a modified hinge joint Figure 6. Figure 6. The elbow joint, where the radius articulates with the humerus, is an example of a hinge joint. Figure 7. The joint in the neck that allows the head to move back and forth is an example of a pivot joint.

Pivot joints consist of the rounded end of one bone fitting into a ring formed by the other bone. This structure allows rotational movement, as the rounded bone moves around its own axis. An example of a pivot joint is the joint of the first and second vertebrae of the neck that allows the head to move back and forth Figure 7. The joint of the wrist that allows the palm of the hand to be turned up and down is also a pivot joint.

Condyloid joints consist of an oval-shaped end of one bone fitting into a similarly oval-shaped hollow of another bone Figure 8. This is also sometimes called an ellipsoidal joint. This type of joint allows angular movement along two axes, as seen in the joints of the wrist and fingers, which can move both side to side and up and down. Figure 8. The metacarpophalangeal joints in the finger are examples of condyloid joints.

Saddle joints are so named because the ends of each bone resemble a saddle, with concave and convex portions that fit together.

Bones Come Together: Types of Joints in the Human Body

Joint , in anatomy , a structure that separates two or more adjacent elements of the skeletal system. Depending on the type of joint, such separated elements may or may not move on one another. This article discusses the joints of the human body—particularly their structure but also their ligaments , nerve and blood supply, and nutrition. Although the discussion focuses on human joints, its content is applicable to joints of vertebrates in general and mammals in particular. For information about the disorders and injuries that commonly affect human joints, see joint disease. In order to describe the main types of joint structures, it is helpful first to summarize the motions made possible by joints. These motions include spinning, swinging, gliding, rolling, and approximation.

How Many Joints Are in the Human Body?

Joints can be classified by the type of the tissue present fibrous, cartilaginous or synovial , or by the degree of movement permitted synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis or diarthrosis. In this article, we shall look at the classification of joints in the human body. A fibrous joint is where the bones are bound by a tough, fibrous tissue. These are typically joints that require strength and stability over range of movement. Sutures are immovable joints synarthrosis , and are only found between the flat, plate-like bones of the skull.

Click Image to Enlarge. Joints are the areas where 2 or more bones meet. Most joints are mobile, allowing the bones to move. Joints consist of the following:.

The point at which two or more bones meet is called a joint , or articulation. Joints are responsible for movement, such as the movement of limbs, and stability, such as the stability found in the bones of the skull. There are two ways to classify joints: on the basis of their structure or on the basis of their function.

The Long and the Short of It: The Five Types of Bones

The human skeleton has a number of functions, such as protection and supporting weight. Different types of bones have differing shapes related to their particular function. There are flat bones in the skull occipital, parietal, frontal, nasal, lacrimal, and vomer , the thoracic cage sternum and ribs , and the pelvis ilium, ischium, and pubis. The function of flat bones is to protect internal organs such as the brain, heart, and pelvic organs. Flat bones are somewhat flattened, and can provide protection, like a shield; flat bones can also provide large areas of attachment for muscles.

Joints, responsible for movement and stability of the skeleton, can be classified based on structure or function. The point at which two or more bones meet is called a joint or articulation. Joints are responsible for movement e.


Enable the body to have movements, lever actions, and According to the type of tissue at the joint: • a) Fibrous membrane, joint capsule, and ligaments to articulate bones. • 2. One way to remember these movements is by their opposite.


What Are Joints?

The question of how many joints there are in the human body is a difficult one to answer because it depends on a number of variables. This includes:. The estimated number is between and The adult human skeletal system has a complex architecture that includes named bones connected by cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and three types of joints:. Although the actual number of joints in any one person depends on a number of variables, the estimated number is between and Cartilage cushions joints and helps them work smoothly. It naturally degenerates with age, which may lead to osteoarthritis.

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Anatomy of a Joint

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