Ethical Theory And Business Pdf
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Everything you need to know about business ethics.
Ethical Theory Business PDF
Everything you need to know about business ethics. Business ethics implies general ethical ideas to business behaviour. Ethical behaviour not only improves profitability but also fosters business relations and employees productivity.
Business ethics is concerned with the behaviour of businessman in doing a business. Unethical practices create problems to businessman and business units. What is Business Ethics? History of Business Ethics 3.
Meaning 4. Concept and Definitions 5. Characteristics 6. Elements 7. Principles 9. Need Importance Theories Business Ethics and Profits of Business Ethics Determinants Advantages of Managing Ethics in Work Place.
Regulations Guidelines Ethical Dilemma Relationship between Business and Ethics Rationale of Business Ethics Ethics and the Indian Corporate Culture The erstwhile-regulated economies necessitated their governments to regulate and control business organisations and economic institutions through law and government mechanisms to enable them to play their role in contributing to the growth and wellbeing of their stakeholders in a balanced way such that the interest of the almost all the people was protected.
Various business management concepts, principles, theories, practices, goals and strategies have been under evaluation, revalidation and constant change consequent upon massive liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation of business initiated towards the end of the 20th Century and geared up in the beginning of the present century.
Many social scientists felt that the deregulation of business would encourage the business to reverse back to its orthodox objective of profit maximization by whatever means including practising unethical conduct. But sooner or the later, a number of incidents around the world proved that businesses should carry out their operations ethically for the sake of basic survival.
The following example is a point in fact. The Company President Mr. The company decided to go ahead without the safety feature. After six months of release, one of the cars was involved in an accident killing all the passengers.
Competitors influenced newspapers to publish this accident and the newspapers in the U. This case indicates that business should consider ethical principles while making decisions in order to achieve its basic objective of survival. Thus, competition forces businesses to conduct their business ethically. Increasing literacy, widespread use of information technology and declining sellers markets after globalisation reduce the scope for debating on the need for conducting business ethically.
The issue, now, is to treat ethics as part of human behaviour and part of making individual and collective business decisions. Many business people are religious individuals, but their business suit makes them blind towards human suffering. Increasingly unethical conduct was found by corporations during the s. To counter this, corporations developed social responsibility programmes which included charitable donations and funding local community projects. Eventually philosophers became involved and brought ethical theory to bear on the relevant ethical issues and hence business ethics became a more institutionalized part of business.
This new aspect of business ethics differentiated it from social issues courses in three ways:. It provides an ethical framework for evaluating business and the corporate world.
It allows critical analysis of business and development of new and different methods. It fused personal and social responsibility together and gave it a theoretical foundation. Ethics is a branch of philosophy concerned with human character and conduct. Ethical standards are referred to as the principles or ideals of human conduct.
What is ethical and unethical in general society may not be the same in business as the latter operates in different environments. It studies the impact of acts on the good of the individual, the firm, the business community and the society as a whole.
Business ethics are the norms and moral values of human behaviour desired by the contemporary society exclusively and inclusively dealing with commercial transactions. These definitions on business ethics are not comprehensive but they provide an idea of what business ethics is. In fact, defining the term business ethics comprehensively is very difficult. Business ethics means the behaviour of a businessman while conducting a business, by observing morality in his business activities.
The behaviour of a businessman has more impact within the business organisation than outside. So, he should obey the laws even though he may personally believe them to be unjust or immoral.
If the businessman feels that the provisions of laws are unjust, he can take steps to change the provisions instead of disobeying them. Such observation of morality is not required out of fear for punishment. He should observe ethics inspired by his own interest in his business and society as a whole.
The reason is that there is no distinction between a businessmen and his business. According to Drucker, every individual and organisation in society should abide by certain moral codes and that there is no separate ethics of business. The nature and concept of Ethics, we can say that Business Ethics is nothing but the application of Ethics in business. Business Ethics proves that businesses can be, and have been, ethical and still make profits. Business Ethics was thought of as being a contradiction of terms.
Thankfully, not any more. Today, more and more interest is being given to the application of ethical practices in business dealings and the ethical implications of business. Human beings have been endowed with the freedom of choice and the means of free will. He can distinguish between good and evil, right and wrong, just and proper.
He can distinguish between the end he wishes to pursue and the means to gain that end. Now, what is true for human beings is also true for business, because business are carried on by human beings only, and business organisations are nothing but formal structures for human beings to carry on their businesses. Moreover, businesses are thought of as being living, growing entities. Thus, businesses also have choices-a choice to maximise their profits and a choice to do good for the society in which they live and operate.
However, at most times, profit maximisation and discharging of social responsibilities at the maximum limit, cannot be carried on simultaneously. One is bound to affect the other. For example, Concern for Task Productivity and Concern for Human Beings workers are bound to pull each other in opposite directions.
It is difficult, if not impossible, to maximise both together. A conflict arises in trying to achieve both simultaneously. Hence, many managerial choices represent Managerial Dilemmas, between the profit consideration commercial concern and the social consideration welfare concern of the organisation. Many managerial decisions have ethical implications and these decisions give rise to Managerial Dilemmas. For example, ruining occupations of age-old inhabitants in a particular locality and their ethical way of life, by using advanced technology, is an ethical dilemma.
Technological advancements have to come, have to be used; however, what to do with the people whose life and earnings are affected by the utilisation of advanced technology, is a question which is difficult to answer. Recently an award-winning regional language file of India, depicted the plight of an aged boatman whose occupation was to transport people and goods across the local river, as there was no bridge over the river. However, his occupation gets threatened when a bridge is built over the river.
This does not mean that technology advancement must not be utilised or that modern methods should not be welcomed. Certainly, they should. Science and technology should, by all means, be used to uplift and make better the lives of human beings all over the world, and specially in such backward regions as this boatman lived. However, consideration should also be given to see whether alternative means of arrangements can be made so that people are not unduly disturbed or that their trauma and upheaval is kept at a minimum.
In case of the boatman, an ethical and effective solution lies in providing him with alternative employment on the bridge itself-as a security man, toll tax collector, etc. Similarly, when Mergers take place between companies, or Acquisition of one company by a bigger company, where Job positions are duplicated, instead of employees losing their jobs for no fault of their, ethical solutions lies in Job Reassignment or Retraining for alternative Job Assignments.
A business or company is considered to be ethical only if it tries to reach a trade-off between perusing its economic objectives and its social obligations, i. What are the obligations of a business, is open to interpretations. The list of obligations that a company must perform is long and complex and hence, are costly to the company; yet they must be discharged, if a company wants to survive and grow in the long run and is not satisfied in making profits only in the short ran. While discharging its obligations to the society, the company not only fulfils its own duties, but also paves the way for a stronger and more ethical foundation.
Ethics, in short, may refer to the following:. Ethics are principles, values and beliefs that define what is right and wrong behaviour.
Ethics are broader than what is stated by law, customs and public opinion. For example, accepting gifts from father-in-law might be socially acceptable but not ethical; owners pocketing profits without sharing the gains with workers might be legally permissible but not ethical. Ethical behaviour may differ from society to society. For example, birth control is mandatory in Communist societies but not in Catholic Christian societies.
Ethical standards are ideals of human conduct.
Ethical Theory and Business EIGHTH EDITION Edited by
How is ethical theory used in contemporary teaching in business ethics? To answer this question, we undertook a survey of twenty-five of the leading business ethics texts. Our purpose was to examine the ways in which normative moral theory is introduced and applied to cases and issues. We focused especially on the authors' views of the conflicts and tensions posed by basic theoretical debates. How can these theories be made useful if fundamental tensions are acknowledged? Our analysis resulted in a typology, presented here, of the ways in which normative theory, and the difficulties within it, are handled in business ethics texts. We conclude that there is a serious lack of clarity about how to apply the theories to cases and a persistent unwillingness to grapple with tensions between theories of ethical reasoning.
Business Ethics Book Download. Further reading. The professional ethics of large swathes of our legal and financial communities is compromised. This may explain why there are no well developed professional ethics in business, and why business is not even unambiguously regarded as a. Acces PDF An Introduction To Business Ethics An Introduction To Business Ethics If you ally need such a referred an introduction to business ethics ebook that will provide you worth, get the unquestionably best seller from us currently from several preferred authors.
Robert B. Louden APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy Spring the blackwell guide to business ethics Sep 07, Posted By Robin Cook Library TEXT ID b8b14 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library business ethics amazonit bowie norman e libri in altre lingue passa al contenuto principale iscriviti a prime ciao accedi account e liste accedi account e liste resi e ordini Furthermore, the vulnerability of the industrial system to create uncertainty to recycling is also demonstrated. While ethical agents could be trained through reinforcement, by rewarding correct behavior under a specific moral theory e. It serves as a warrant for the expert witnesses' expertise, which in turn makes opinion admissible in a way not available to ordinary witnesses.
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