Hiv Aids Awareness Prevention Treatment And Services Ppt To Pdf
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AIDS is a serious condition that weakens the body's immune system, leaving it unable to fight off illness. The diseases include a number of unusual and severe infections, cancers and debilitating illnesses, resulting in severe weight loss or wasting away, and diseases affecting the brain and central nervous system. The immune system is a network of cells, organs and proteins that work together to defend and protect the body from potentially harmful, infectious microorganisms microscopic life-forms , such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. The immune system also plays a critical role in preventing the development and spread of many types of cancer. When the immune system is missing one or more of its components, the result is an immunodeficiency disorder.
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We include products we think are useful for our readers. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. HIV is a virus that damages the immune system.
Over time, as HIV kills more CD4 cells, the body is more likely to get various types of conditions and cancers. At that point, the immune system is too weak to successfully respond against other diseases, infections, and conditions. Untreated, life expectancy with end stage AIDS is about 3 years. With antiretroviral therapy, HIV can be well-managed, and life expectancy can be nearly the same as someone who has not contracted HIV.
Learn about the effects of HIV on the different systems in the body. HIV kills CD4 cells. Healthy adults generally have a CD4 count of to 1, 6 00 per cubic millimeter. An opportunistic infection such as Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is one that only occurs in a severely immunocompromised person, such as someone with advanced HIV infection AIDS. This may be shorter if the person develops a severe opportunistic illness. However, treatment with antiretroviral drugs can prevent AIDS from developing.
If AIDS does develop, it means that the immune system is severely compromised, that is, weakened to the point where it can no longer successfully respond against most diseases and infections. A person with a count below is considered to have AIDS. How quickly a case of HIV progresses through the chronic stage varies significantly from person to person.
Without treatment, it can last up to a decade before advancing to AIDS. With treatment, it can last indefinitely. People with HIV often have a near-normal lifespan with early treatment with antiretroviral therapy. This point is a count of or higher. The virus can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion or organ and tissue transplant. However, rigorous testing for HIV among blood, organ, and tissue donors ensures that this is very rare in the United States.
Learn more about HIV transmission. HIV is a variation of a virus that can be transmitted to African chimpanzees. Scientists suspect the simian immunodeficiency virus SIV jumped from chimps to humans when people consumed chimpanzee meat containing the virus.
Once inside the human population, the virus mutated into what we now know as HIV. This likely occurred as long ago as the s. HIV spread from person to person throughout Africa over the course of several decades. Eventually, the virus migrated to other parts of the world. Scientists first discovered HIV in a human blood sample in Healthy individuals have a CD4 count of to 1, per cubic millimeter. Several different tests can be used to diagnose HIV. Healthcare providers determine which test is best for each person.
They can show positive results typically within 18—45 days after someone initially contracts HIV. These tests check the blood for antibodies and antigens. An antibody is a type of protein the body makes to respond to an infection.
An antigen, on the other hand, is the part of the virus that activates the immune system. These tests check the blood solely for antibodies. Between 23 and 90 days after transmission, most people will develop detectable HIV antibodies, which can be found in the blood or saliva.
If they have a positive result, they should follow up with their healthcare provider to confirm. It takes from 5 to 21 days for HIV to be detectable in the blood. This test is usually accompanied or confirmed by an antibody test.
Learn more about HIV home testing options. As soon as someone contracts HIV, it starts to reproduce in their body. Most people develop detectable HIV antibodies within 23 to 90 days after transmission.
However, they can still transmit the virus to others during this time. If someone thinks they may have been exposed to HIV but tested negative during this time, they should repeat the test in a few months to confirm the timing depends on the test used. And during that time, they need to use condoms or other barrier methods to prevent possibly spreading HIV. Someone who tests negative during the window might benefit from post-exposure prophylaxis PEP.
This is medication taken after an exposure to prevent getting HIV. PEP needs to be taken as soon as possible after the exposure; it should be taken no later than 72 hours after exposure but ideally before then. Learn more about how timing affects HIV test results. The first few weeks after someone contracts HIV is called the acute infection stage. During this time, the virus reproduces rapidly. During this stage, some people have no symptoms at first. This is because symptoms of the acute stage can be very similar to those of the flu or other seasonal viruses, such as:.
Because these symptoms are similar to common illnesses like the flu, the person who has them might not think they need to see a healthcare provider. And even if they do, their healthcare provider might suspect the flu or mononucleosis and might not even consider HIV. Whether a person has symptoms or not, during this period their viral load is very high. The viral load is the amount of HIV found in the bloodstream. Initial HIV symptoms usually resolve within a few months as the person enters the chronic, or clinical latency, stage of HIV.
This stage can last many years or even decades with treatment. Learn more about the early symptoms of HIV. After the first month or so, HIV enters the clinical latency stage. This stage can last from a few years to a few decades. As with the early stage, HIV is still transferable during this time even without symptoms and can be transmitted to another person.
HIV symptoms at this stage may come and go, or they may progress rapidly. This progression can be slowed substantially with treatment. With the consistent use of this antiretroviral therapy, chronic HIV can last for decades and will likely not develop into AIDS, if treatment was started early enough.
Learn more about how HIV symptoms can progress over time. Many people with HIV experience changes to their skin. Rash is often one of the first symptoms of an HIV infection. Generally, an HIV rash appears as multiple small red lesions that are flat and raised. HIV makes someone more susceptible to skin problems because the virus destroys immune system cells that take measures against infection.
Co-infections that can cause rash include:. While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other conditions can cause a rash. This type of rash usually appears within a week or 2 weeks of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.
If this develops, emergency medical care is needed. Learn more about HIV rash. These symptoms can come and go or get progressively worse. These include:. Men, and those with a penis, may be more likely than women to notice symptoms of STIs such as sores on their genitals. Learn more about HIV symptoms in men.
For the most part, symptoms of HIV are similar in men and women. However, symptoms they experience overall may differ based on the different risks men and women face if they have HIV. However, women, and those with a vagina, may be less likely than men to notice small spots or other changes to their genitals.
While not related to HIV symptoms, another risk for women with HIV is that the virus can be transmitted to a baby during pregnancy. However, antiretroviral therapy is considered safe during pregnancy. Women who are treated with antiretroviral therapy are at very low risk for transmitting HIV to their baby during pregnancy and delivery. Breastfeeding is also affected in women with HIV. The virus can be transferred to a baby through breast milk. For these women, use of formula is encouraged.
Options besides formula include pasteurized banked human milk. Learn more about HIV symptoms in women. AIDS refers to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
HIV AND AIDS PPT and PDF Free
Get the latest information from CDC coronavirus. People who engage in drug use or high-risk behaviors associated with drug use put themselves at risk for contracting or transmitting viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus HIV , acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS , or hepatitis. This is because viruses spread through blood or other body fluids. It happens primarily in two ways: 1 when people inject drugs and share needles or other drug equipment and 2 when drugs impair judgment and people have unprotected sex with an infected partner. This can happen with both men and women. They can also pass HIV to the baby through breastmilk. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.
HIV AND AIDS PPT and PDF Free: HIV means Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome, it s Prevention, cure, cause, treatment. 1st of December is declared as World AIDS Day to create awareness among the public. Prevention from HIV infection, women should have access to better health services.
Graphical display of trends in estimates of HIV incidence and prevalence in the United States for years This slide set presents numbers and rates in HIV diagnoses and provides preliminary data, based on a 6-month reporting delay, for This slide series presents HIV surveillance data for the United States and 6 dependent areas among women. This slide set describes HIV among adolescents and young adults in the United States and 6 dependent areas.
NCBI Bookshelf. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Stefano Bertozzi , Nancy S. Padian , Jeny Wegbreit , Lisa M. Despite the rapid spread of HIV, several countries have achieved important success in curbing its transmission.