# Difference Between Active Power Reactive Power And Apparent Power Pdf

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Explore other articles on this topic. While current and voltage have stable values with direct current, the strength and the direction of both current flow and voltage change regularly in alternating current. In the utility grid, current and voltage have a sinusoidal progression, meaning that their product, electrical power, is also sinusoidal.

## 11.2: True, Reactive, and Apparent Power

Instantaneous power in an electric circuit is the rate of flow of energy past a given point of the circuit. In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductors and capacitors may result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power that, averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform , results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as active power more commonly called real power to avoid ambiguity especially in discussions of loads with non-sinusoidal currents. The portion of power due to stored energy, which returns to the source in each cycle, is known as instantaneous reactive power , and its amplitude is the absolute value of reactive power. In a simple alternating current AC circuit consisting of a source and a linear load, both the current and voltage are sinusoidal.

The most significant difference between the active and reactive power is that the active power is the actual power which is dissipated in the circuit. The other differences between the active and reactive power are explained below in the comparison chart. The right-angled triangle shown below shows the relation between the active, reactive and apparent power. Measures the power factor of the circuit. The power which is dissipated or do the useful work in the circuit is known as the active power.

## Active, Reactive and Apparent Power

The required power supply is called the apparent power and is a complex value that can be expressed in a Pythagorean triangle relationship as indicated in the figure below. Apparent power is measured in volt-amperes VA - the AC system voltage multiplied with flowing current. Apparent power is a complex value and the vector sum of the active and reactive power as indicated in the figure above. Active - or Real or True - power do the actual work in the load. Active power is measured in watts W and is the power consumed by electrical resistance. Reactive power is the imaginary or complex power in a capacitive or inductive load. Reactive power represents an energy exchange between the power source and the reactive loads where no net power is gained or lost.

The main difference between active and reactive power is that Active Power is actual or real power which is used in the circuit while Reactive power bounce back and forth between load and source which is theoretically useless. The following power triangle shows the relation between Active, Reactive and Apparent Power. These all powers only induced in AC circuits when current is leading or lagging behind the voltage i. The average value of active power can be calculated by the following formulas. The power which moves and back bounces back and forth between source and load in the circuit is known as Reactive Power.

We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power, yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. The mathematical symbol for reactive power is unfortunately the capital letter Q. The actual amount of power being used, or dissipated, in a circuit is called true power , and it is measured in watts symbolized by the capital letter P, as always. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance, reactance, and impedance all using scalar quantities :. Please note that there are two equations each for the calculation of true and reactive power.

where. – V = rms voltage [V]. – I = rms current [A]. – φ = phase angle difference between the voltage and current. Active or Real Power φ cos.

## Definition of Active Power, Reactive Power and Apparent Power / Design of PV Farms

Many practical circuits contain a combination of resistive, inductive and capacitive elements. These elements cause the phase shift between the parameters of electrical supply such as voltage and current. Due to the behavior of voltage and currents, especially when subjected to these components, power quantity comes in different forms. In AC circuits, voltage and current amplitudes will change continuously over a time. Since the power is the voltage times the current, it will be maximized when currents and voltages are lined up with each other.

Active and Reactive Power Introduction to Active and Reactive Power An understanding of the concepts of active and reactive power flow are critical to an understanding of power system dynamics. This chapter first reviews and summarizes the theory related to active and reactive power. Simple equations are then developed for the flow of both active.

### Active, Reactive and Apparent Power

It is measured in kilowatt kW or MW. It is the actual outcomes of the electrical system which runs the electric circuits or load. Definition: The power which flows back and forth that means it moves in both the directions in the circuit or reacts upon itself, is called Reactive Power. It has been seen that power is consumed only in resistance.

We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power, yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. The actual amount of power being used, or dissipated, in a circuit is called true power , and it is measured in watts symbolized by the capital letter P, as always. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance, reactance, and impedance all using scalar quantities :. True power, reactive power, and apparent power for a purely resistive load.

AC power sources are essential pieces of equipment for providing flexible and reactive power which will vary the phase angle between voltage and current.

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