# Supervised And Unsupervised Learning In Data Mining Pdf

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*Unsupervised learning UL is a type of algorithm that learns patterns from untagged data.*

- Supervised vs Unsupervised Learning: Key Differences
- Supervised/unsupervised Machine Learning
- Supervised Learning vs Unsupervised Learning

*In Supervised learning, you train the machine using data which is well "labeled. It can be compared to learning which takes place in the presence of a supervisor or a teacher. A supervised learning algorithm learns from labeled training data, helps you to predict outcomes for unforeseen data.*

## Supervised vs Unsupervised Learning: Key Differences

Unsupervised learning UL is a type of algorithm that learns patterns from untagged data. The hope is that through mimicry, the machine is forced to build a compact internal representation of its world. In contrast to supervised learning SL where data is tagged by a human, e. Two of the main methods used in unsupervised learning are principal component and cluster analysis.

Cluster analysis is used in unsupervised learning to group, or segment, datasets with shared attributes in order to extrapolate algorithmic relationships. Instead of responding to feedback, cluster analysis identifies commonalities in the data and reacts based on the presence or absence of such commonalities in each new piece of data.

This approach helps detect anomalous data points that do not fit into either group. The only requirement to be called an unsupervised learning strategy is to learn a new feature space that captures the characteristics of the original space by maximizing some objective function or minimising some loss function.

Therefore, generating a covariance matrix is not unsupervised learning, but taking the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix is because the linear algebra eigendecomposition operation maximizes the variance; this is known as principal component analysis. A central application of unsupervised learning is in the field of density estimation in statistics , [4] though unsupervised learning encompasses many other domains involving summarizing and explaining data features.

Some of the most common algorithms used in unsupervised learning include: 1 Clustering, 2 Anomaly detection, 3 Neural Networks, and 4 Approaches for learning latent variable models.

Each approach uses several methods as follows:. One of the statistical approaches for unsupervised learning is the method of moments.

In the method of moments, the unknown parameters of interest in the model are related to the moments of one or more random variables, and thus, these unknown parameters can be estimated given the moments. The moments are usually estimated from samples empirically. The basic moments are first and second order moments. For a random vector, the first order moment is the mean vector, and the second order moment is the covariance matrix when the mean is zero.

Higher order moments are usually represented using tensors which are the generalization of matrices to higher orders as multi-dimensional arrays. In particular, the method of moments is shown to be effective in learning the parameters of latent variable models. A highly practical example of latent variable models in machine learning is the topic modeling which is a statistical model for generating the words observed variables in the document based on the topic latent variable of the document.

In the topic modeling, the words in the document are generated according to different statistical parameters when the topic of the document is changed. It is shown that method of moments tensor decomposition techniques consistently recover the parameters of a large class of latent variable models under some assumptions. The Expectation—maximization algorithm EM is also one of the most practical methods for learning latent variable models.

However, it can get stuck in local optima, and it is not guaranteed that the algorithm will converge to the true unknown parameters of the model. In contrast, for the method of moments, the global convergence is guaranteed under some conditions.

UL methods usually prepare a network for generative tasks rather than recognition, but grouping tasks as supervised or not can be hazy. For example, handwriting recognition started off in the s as SL. Then in , UL is used to prime the network for SL afterwards. Currently, SL has regained its position as the better method. Training During the learning phase, an unsupervised network tries to mimic the data it's given and uses the error in its mimicked output to correct itself eg.

This resembles the mimicry behavior of children as they learn a language. Sometimes the error is expressed as a low probability that the erroneous output occurs, or it might be express as an unstable high energy state in the network. Energy An energy function is a macroscopic measure of a network's state. Hence, early neural networks bear the name Boltzmann Machine.

Paul Smolensky calls -E the Harmony. A network seeks low energy which is high Harmony. Boltzmann and Helmholtz came before neural networks formulations, but these networks borrowed from their analyses, so these networks bear their names. Hopfield, however, directly contributed to UL. Specific Networks Here, we highlight some characteristics of each networks. A neuron correspond to an iron domain with binary magnetic moments Up and Down, and neural connections correspond to the domain's influence on each other.

Symmetric connections enables a global energy formulation. During inference the network updates each state using the standard activation step function. Symmetric weights guarantees convergence to a stable activation pattern. Hopfield networks are used as CAMs and are guaranteed to settle to a some pattern. Without symmetric weights, the network is very hard to analyze.

With the right energy function, a network will converge. Boltzmann machines are stochastic Hopfield nets. It's 2 networks combined into one—forward weights operates recognition and backward weights implements imagination. It is perhaps the first network to do both. Helmholtz did not work in machine learning but he inspired the view of "statistical inference engine whose function is to infer probable causes of sensory input" 3.

The data input is normally not considered a layer, but in the Helmholtz machine generation mode, the data layer receives input from the middle layer has separate weights for this purpose, so it is considered a layer. Hence this network has 3 layers. Variational Autoencoder VAE are inspired by Helmholtz machines and combines probability network with neural networks. An Autoencoder is a 3-layer CAM network, where the middle layer is supposed to be some internal representation of input patterns.

These 2 networks here can be fully connected, or use another NN scheme. Hebbian Learning, ART, SOM The classical example of unsupervised learning in the study of neural networks is Donald Hebb 's principle, that is, neurons that fire together wire together.

Hebbian Learning has been hypothesized to underlie a range of cognitive functions, such as pattern recognition and experiential learning.

Among neural network models, the self-organizing map SOM and adaptive resonance theory ART are commonly used in unsupervised learning algorithms. The SOM is a topographic organization in which nearby locations in the map represent inputs with similar properties. The ART model allows the number of clusters to vary with problem size and lets the user control the degree of similarity between members of the same clusters by means of a user-defined constant called the vigilance parameter.

ART networks are used for many pattern recognition tasks, such as automatic target recognition and seismic signal processing. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Machine learning technique. Dimensionality reduction. Structured prediction. Graphical models Bayes net Conditional random field Hidden Markov. Anomaly detection. Artificial neural network.

Reinforcement learning. Machine-learning venues. Glossary of artificial intelligence. Related articles. List of datasets for machine-learning research Outline of machine learning. Unsupervised Learning: Foundations of Neural Computation. MIT Press. Retrieved Journal of Financial Data Science. In Allen B. Tucker ed. New York: Springer. Journal of Machine Learning Research. Bibcode : arXiv Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing. Authority control GND : Categories : Unsupervised learning Machine learning.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

Anomaly detection k -NN Local outlier factor. Glossary of artificial intelligence Glossary of artificial intelligence. Related articles List of datasets for machine-learning research Outline of machine learning. Recalling a memory by a partial pattern instead of a memory address. During inference the network performs the task it is trained to do—either recognizing a pattern SL or creating one UL. Usually inference descends the gradient of an energy function.

For example, the pixel pattern of a zero, whether it's given as data or imagined by the network, has a feature that is describable as a single loop. The features are encoded in the hidden neurons. Fukushima introduces the neocognitron, which is later called a convolution neural network. It is mostly used in SL, but deserves a mention here.

## Supervised/unsupervised Machine Learning

This book covers the state of the art in learning algorithms with an inclusion of semi-supervised methods to provide a broad scope of clustering and classification solutions for big data applications. Case studies and best practices are included along with theoretical models of learning for a comprehensive reference to the field. The book is organized into eight chapters that cover the following topics: discretization, feature extraction and selection, classification, clustering, topic modeling, graph analysis and applications. Practitioners and graduate students can use the volume as an important reference for their current and future research and faculty will find the volume useful for assignments in presenting current approaches to unsupervised and semi-supervised learning in graduate-level seminar courses. Professor Michael W. He has published well over peer-refereed journal and conference publications and book chapters.

unsupervised learning. Supervised versus Unsupervised Learning. Supervised learning, also referred to.

## Supervised Learning vs Unsupervised Learning

Titles -- including monographs, contributed works, professional books, and textbooks -- tackle various issues surrounding the proliferation of massive amounts of unlabeled data in many application domains and how unsupervised learning algorithms can automatically discover interesting and useful patterns in such data. The books discuss how these algorithms have found numerous applications including pattern recognition, market basket analysis, web mining, social network analysis, information retrieval, recommender systems, market research, intrusion detection, and fraud detection. Books also discuss semi-supervised algorithms, which can make use of both labeled and unlabeled data and can be useful in application domains where unlabeled data is abundant, yet it is possible to obtain a small amount of labeled data. While the series focuses on unsupervised and semi-supervised learning, outstanding contributions in the field of supervised learning will also be considered. The intended audience includes students, researchers, and practitioners.

*Supervised learning is the machine learning task of learning a function that maps an input to an output based on example input-output pairs. A supervised learning algorithm analyzes the training data and produces an inferred function, which can be used for mapping new examples. An optimal scenario will allow for the algorithm to correctly determine the class labels for unseen instances.*

In book: Supervised and Unsupervised Learning for Data Science (pp) including cancer diagnosis, social media and text mining, and.

By Priya Pedamkar.

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