Difference Between Elastic And Plastic Deformation Pdf
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Objects deform when pushed, pulled, and twisted. Elasticity is the measure of the amount that the object can return to its original shape after these external forces and pressures stop. The opposite of elasticity is plasticity ; when something is stretched, and it stays stretched, the material is said to be plastic.
The material has now moved into the region referred to as plastic deformation. If there is some remaining deformation after the force is removed this is a plactic deformation. The main difference between a plastic body and an elastic body is based on individual their ability to regain their shape and size after an external force is applied to the bodies both, elastic and plastic materials are widely applicable and used in the field of science and technology. This modulus accounts for local plastic deformation and resulting strain hardening or softening. A classic example of elastic deformation is the stretching of a rubber band.
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Both, elastic and plastic materials are widely applicable and used in the field of science and technology. Thus, it is easier to understand these properties in terms of physics. They describe the attributes of materials such as rubber, plastic, metal, etc. In physics, when an external force is applied to the surface of any material or a body, the material undergoes a physical change or deformation. Now, when the force is removed, the material depending on its properties may or may not return to its original shape. Based on the above explanation, it becomes easier to define the two properties, and state the difference between them. Elasticity is a property of a material to be flexible or buoyant in nature.
We referred to the proportionality constant between stress and strain as the elastic modulus. But why do we call it that? What does it mean for an object to be elastic and how do we describe its behavior? Elasticity is the tendency of solid objects and materials to return to their original shape after the external forces load causing a deformation are removed. An object is elastic when it comes back to its original size and shape when the load is no longer present. Physical reasons for elastic behavior vary among materials and depend on the microscopic structure of the material.
Difference between Plastic and Elastic
Elastic limit , maximum stress or force per unit area within a solid material that can arise before the onset of permanent deformation. When stresses up to the elastic limit are removed, the material resumes its original size and shape. Stresses beyond the elastic limit cause a material to yield or flow. For such materials the elastic limit marks the end of elastic behaviour and the beginning of plastic behaviour. For most brittle materials, stresses beyond the elastic limit result in fracture with almost no plastic deformation. The elastic limit nearly coincides with the proportional limit for some elastic materials, so that at times the two are not distinguished; whereas for other materials a region of nonproportional elasticity exists between the two. The proportional limit is the end point of what is called linearly elastic behaviour.
Elastic deformation is a temporary deformation under the action of external loading. Plastic deformation is the permanent deformation. Once the external load is removed from an elastically deformed body, it regains its original shape.
Elasticity vs plasticity
Functionally graded material shafts are the main part of many modern rotary machines such as turbines and electric motors. The purpose of this study is to present an analytical solution of the elastic-plastic deformation of functionally graded material hollow rotor under a high centrifugal effect and finally determine the maximum allowed angular velocity of a hollow functionally graded material rotating shaft. Introducing non-dimensional parameters, the equilibrium equation has been analytically solved. It is shown that material variation has a considerable effect on the stress and strain components and radial displacement.
Deformation is the effect of change in the shape of a physical object when an external force is applied to the surface. The forces can be applied as normal, tangential or torques on the surface. If a body does not change its shape, even slightly due to external forces, the object is defined as a perfect solid object. Perfect solid bodies are not present in nature; every object has its own deformations. In this article, we are going to discuss what elastic deformation and plastic deformation are, how they are encountered in nature, and what are their applications.
In every engineering application solid structures are subjected to external loading. Such loading can be broadly classified into two categories—normal load and shear load. Tensile and compressive loading are two different types of normal loading. All other types of loading such as bending, torsional, etc. When sufficient external load is applied on a solid body, it undergoes deformation.