Mycotoxins In Food Feed And Bioweapons Pdf File

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Mycotoxins are made by different biosynthetic pathways, and they have an extremely wide range of pharmacological effects. This book will update readers on several cutting-edge aspects of mycotoxin research, including topics such as: new analytical methods for detection; the adoption of an ancient Mexican process for detoxification of aflatoxins; mycotoxin management in Ireland, Lithuania and South America; mycotoxin reduction through plant breeding and integrated management practices; and natural aflatoxin inhibitors from medicinal plants.

The rhetoric is not yet white hot but certainly heating up. North Korea wants nuclear-tipped intercontinental missiles. The U.

Microbiology & Experimentation

The rhetoric is not yet white hot but certainly heating up. North Korea wants nuclear-tipped intercontinental missiles. The U. The potential threats are becoming more real with each passing day as new information is made public. North Korea has chemical, biological and nuclear weapons programs.

All three could cause significant damage to the regional food supply Korean peninsula, southern China, Japan, etc. War with North Korea would be beyond ugly, beyond anything the world has experienced since World War II in terms of the devastation wrought.

Multiple nations surrounding the Korean Peninsula possess scores of nuclear weapons. No one truly knows how the nuclear nations would respond, should North Korea send a missile toward Japan, South Korea or some U. So what are the facts, and what are the implications to the U. Nuclear Threats Facts. North Korea has conducted a series of missile tests, each moving the country closer to being able to hit the U.

Un views nuclear weapons as a means to ensure regime survival. In this sense, the missile program is essentially the same as with the nuclear program.

One that is not capable of delivery is a weapon of no consequence. The effects of a nuclear weapon explosion over a large civilian population is well documented. Think Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tens to hundreds of thousands of casualties would occur instantaneously.

The design of the North Korean nuclear weapons is similar to designs used by the Pakistanis no coincidence. This is important because they are different from designs used by the U. Putting this in perspective, think of a nuclear war as a nuclear accident e. Radioactive fallout would be dispersed by winds around the world. However, iodine has a relatively short half-live and will decay within a few weeks.

In contrast, radioactive caesium which can also be detected early on, is longer-lived Cs has a half life of about 2 years and Cs has a half life of about 30 years and can remain in the environment for a long-time. Radioactive caesium is also relatively rapidly transferred from feed to milk. Uptake of caesium into food is also of long term concern.

Other radioisotopes that could be of long-term concern if released, are strontium and plutonium. Strontium has a half life of about 29 years, and plutonium has a much longer half life than that Pu 88 years, Pu years, Pu years.

An open-air nuclear weapon explosion, regardless of its origin, could grossly contaminate the food production and processing environment. Food corporations would need to understand clearly where the fallout was carried and make business decisions based on the models and nuclide test results, which would likely become mandatory to protect the food supply.

The government would play a huge role in this response, but could not be solely depended upon, given they do not have sole loyalty to any company. Food corporations would have to find non-government based expertise in order to focus on corporate specific priorities. Since these types of experts food chemists, radiation safety personnel, etc. These SMEs will not come cheap, particularly during an actual crisis, when their services will be open to the highest bidder, unless arranged ahead of time.

Beyond anything else, retention of these experts now should be considered an investment for the future. Biological Threats Facts.

The program is considered as active and substantial, but not on the scale witnessed in the former Soviet Union. From other sources and without going into details of delivery, putting pathogens in missiles is unlikely. Bioweapons are tricky, because they are labile can be killed or neutralized and tend to be burned up in explosions. Other delivery methods, such as aerosolization, transmission by people, animals zoonotic or vectors e. The report references earlier unclassified reports by South Korea and others in which a total of 13 agents were listed, including Bacillus anthracis anthrax , Clostridium botulinum botulism , Vibrio cholerae cholera , Bunyaviridae hantavirus Korean hemorrhagic fever , Yersinia pestis plague , Variola smallpox , Salmonella typhi typhoid fever , Coquillettidia fuscopennata yellow fever , Shigella dysentery , Brucella brucellosis , Staphylococcus aureus staph , Rickettsia prowazekii typhus fever and T-2 mycotoxin Alimentary Toxic Aleukia.

Many of these pathogens could be used to intentionally contaminate the food supply, particularly if North Korean agents successfully penetrate food processing industries and gain access to process concentration points, for example, where ingredients are dispersed into other food products.

Concentration points are magnification points. Normal food processing protocols would neutralize most if not all of these agents, but fresh, nonprocessed foods could become vulnerable. Some pathogens e.

Some pathogens have a relatively short viability period in the environment, where others are far more persistent. Beyond the suspected biological weapons, North Korea, like many countries including the U. Of particular concern is the Pyongyang Bio-technical Institute, which some experts consider capable of producing anthrax.

Though strongly denied by North Korea, the facility has the equipment and capacity to create biological weapons.

The visit took place only 10 days after the U. North Korea has biological capabilities that are clearly dual use. Having the capacity to produce pathogens in large quantities is only the first step, because a means to deliver the pathogens is also required. North Korea has the capabilities, including a substantial unmanned aircraft system UAS program that could be used to aerially disperse pathogens. The virus causing smallpox is the most pressing concern, since few people in the U.

North Korea is believed to possess the virus and is capable of propagating it on an apocalyptic scale. That being said, biological weapons are tricky because once released, they can bite back the sender, particularly if the unintended victims have not been vaccinated.

Whether North Korea has vaccinated the civilian population is an open question. If North Koreans have not been vaccinated, it is doubtful the rogue nation would be able to vaccinate rapidly enough to prevent a simultaneous outbreak in their own civilian population.

Fortunately, smallpox is not a foodborne pathogen, but others such as anthrax can be made to be so. If war between North Korea and the U. Response strategies. Searching for unknown pathogens being used as biological weapons is, in many respects, no different from searching for any foodborne pathogens. Any competent microbiological laboratory used to handle human pathogens could successfully isolate and identify bioweapon pathogens.

The problem is that you have to have some idea what to look for. Were a biological attack to occur, the government would be expected to identify the agent s within hours or a day or two. Biotechnology complicated this paradigm, because hybrid pathogens could be weaponized and delivered. These bioengineered pathogens could look like one agent and act like another, making diagnosis more difficult. Food industry microbiology personnel are urged to familiarize themselves with potential biological weapon agents,[ 5 ] including culturing and identification methodologies.

In time of war, these people would be on the front lines of defense, alongside public health officials. The food and water supplies of the U. If North Korea goes to war, the U. Again, agricultural areas and food corporations would be likely targets alongside population centers. Chemical Weapon Threats Facts.

North Korea has significant industrial capacity to produce large amounts of chemical weapons under the guise of other legitimate production programs, such as the production of pesticides.

The rest could have been binary agents that would have become dangerous when mixed together. We assess Pyongyang possesses a sizeable stockpile of agents.

It is important to note that the agents listed here are primarily battlefield weapons that can be delivered by missiles, aircraft or other means, but are not likely to be encountered by international food corporations, except possibly in the form of affected agriculture production areas. If this were to happen, affected livestock would perish, causing a carcass-disposal problem.

North Korea would be expected to utilize a combination of chemical agents in a chemical weapons attack, including those of short duration effect i. Remediation of a large chemical weapons event affecting agricultural areas would be beyond the capabilities of even the largest food corporations. Although unlikely in the U.

Although it is a low probability even there, the effects of such an attack on the economy and trade are almost beyond measure.

More likely would be a scenario involving industrial chemicals and sabotage. It is likely that North Korea has agents and sleeper cells spread throughout Asia as well as the technological knowledge to exploit advantage, using improvised weapons by way of locally available industrial chemicals. This improvised chemical weapons capability, combined with the ability to place knowledgeable adversaries within the food industries, should be considered by the food industry as a real threat to both brand quality and personnel safety.

Any corporation unlucky enough to be targeted by North Korea would likely experience both a devastating effect on personnel, and an equally serious economic effect, given consumers would likely turn away from food products originating with the company because of contamination concerns. To be effective, a concerted effort at brand remediation would need to be initiated immediately, perhaps even before the contamination was cleaned up.

Robert A. Norton, Ph. He is a long-time consultant to the U. He can be reached at nortora auburn. References 1. Interestingly, the article accompanying the video report indicates that VX nerve agent can be used to attack people, by contaminating the water and or food supplies or via aerosol spray.

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Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota

Reduction of aflatoxin B 1 during tortilla production and identification of degradation by-products by direct-injection electrospray mass spectrometry DIESI-MS. Corresponding author. To determine the effect of pH, and exposure time over the inactivation of aflatoxin B 1 AFB 1 during the tortilla making process as well as the degradative molecules generated. Materials and methods. The alkaline pH of maize-dough and resting time are the principal factors involved in diminishing AFB1 levels in tortilla s.

Mycotoxins in Food, Feed and Bioweapons

For this reason we think is important to thank them. The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from false alarms and use of agents by individuals or small groups against individuals or smaller subgroups of the population to state-sponsored terrorism that employs biological warfare agents BWAs and their diffusion systems that can produce mass victims. These agents can cause large-scale mortality, incapacitate a large number of people in short time or have adverse effects on human health. In a military context, incapacitating agents may be more effective as the unit will not be able to carry out its mission and the victims consume little medical and evacuation resources. BWAs aerosols are invisible, silent, odorless and relatively easily dispersed.

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T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies

Trichothecenes are a very large family of chemically related mycotoxins produced by various species of Fusarium , Myrothecium , Trichoderma , Trichothecium , Cephalosporium , Verticimonosporium , and Stachybotrys. Trichothecenes are a class of sesquiterpenes.

Mycotoxins: a new concern for biosecurity?

Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems. Sensitivity to this type of toxin varying from dairy cattle to pigs, with the most sensitive endpoints being neural, reproductive, immunological and hematological effects.

Regret for the inconvenience: we are taking measures to prevent fraudulent form submissions by extractors and page crawlers. Received: November 17, Published: December 1, J Microbiol Exp 2 6 : DOI:

Even then, the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist as well as during the process of food and feed preparation.

Mycotoxins in Food, Feed and Bioweapons


  1. Cathy B. 09.05.2021 at 03:07

    Mycotoxins, chemicals produced by fungi, may have developed to serve as a chemical defense system against insects, microorganisms, nematodes, grazing animals, and humans.

  2. Diodarwades 11.05.2021 at 09:29

    The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis diseases and death in human and animals.

  3. Ciara C. 12.05.2021 at 01:50

    text file; PDF. Imprint: Berlin ; Heidelberg: Springer, © Physical description: 1 online resource (xviii, pages): illustrations. Online.

  4. Mike P. 15.05.2021 at 20:43

    used as bioweapons during war, since mold-toxins are cheap, easy to access and can mysteries of toxicity of mycotoxins in food, feed and bioweapons. Manual selection is the simplest procedure for the physical removal of contami-.