Monsoon Rainfall Weather And Climate In India Pdf

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monsoon rainfall weather and climate in india pdf

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Indian Climate Notes: Monsoon, El Nino Effect, Koeppen's Classification

The climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult. Many regions have starkly different microclimates. The nation has four seasons: winter January and February , summer March to May , a monsoon rainy season June to September , and a post-monsoon period October to December. India's unique geography and geology strongly influence its climate, particularly in the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia. Thus, North India stays warm or only mildly cold during winter; in summer, the same phenomenon makes India relatively hot.

It blows from the northeast during cooler months and reverses direction to blow from the southwest during the warmest months of the year. This process brings large amounts of rainfall to the region during June and July. They soon retreat northward, and drastic changes take place in the upper-air circulation see climate: Jet streams. This is a time of transition between the end of one monsoon and the beginning of the next. Late in March the high-sun season reaches the Equator and moves farther north.

The climate of India comprises of a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalizations difficult. Climate in South India is generally hotter and extremely humid than that of North India. South India is more humid due to nearby coasts. Many regions have starkly different microclimates , making it one of the most climatically diverse countries in the world. The country's meteorological department follows the international standard of four seasons with some local adjustments: winter January and February , summer March, April and May , monsoon rainy season June to September , and a post-monsoon period October to December.

Climate of India

The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons. It affects the Indian subcontinent , where it is one of the oldest and most anticipated weather phenomena and an economically important pattern every year from June through September, but it is only partly understood and notoriously difficult to predict. Several theories have been proposed to explain the origin, process, strength, variability, distribution, and general vagaries of the monsoon, but understanding and predictability are still evolving. The unique geographical features of the Indian subcontinent , along with associated atmospheric , oceanic , and geophysical factors, influence the behavior of the monsoon. Because of its effect on agriculture , on flora and fauna , and on the climates of nations such as Bangladesh , Bhutan , India , Nepal , Pakistan , and Sri Lanka — among other economic , social , and environmental effects — the monsoon is one of the most anticipated, tracked, [3] and studied weather phenomena in the region. It has a significant effect on the overall well-being of residents and has even been dubbed the "real finance minister of India".


The rainless interval during south west monsoon season is known as 'breaks'. The northeast monsoon is mostly dry.


Indian Climate Notes: Monsoon, El Nino Effect, Koeppen's Classification

The Indian economy, to a major extent, depends upon the all-India summer monsoon rainfall. Because of differential heating of the Indian subcontinent and the adjoining water bodies during summer, moisture is drawn from the ocean to produce a monsoon that begins in June and ends by September, with intense rainfall during July and August. Even though the all-India monsoon rainfall does not vary hugely from year to year, it has large monthly and regional variations. Dash et al.

The prediction of seasonal mean Indian summer monsoon rainfall ISMR is very important for socioeconomic and water resource planning of the country of India. Also, projection of ISMR under different climate change scenarios is crucial for the planning of adaptation and mitigation strategies of the country. Unfortunately, today we have very little confidence in either the seasonal prediction of ISMR or its projections under climate change scenarios. Although the foundation for the predictability of the tropical climate has been laid Charney and Shukla ; Shukla , the skill in predicting the seasonal mean monsoon rainfall by almost all the global climate models remains limited Kang et al. Hence, a significant improvement in the simulation of the monsoon rainfall climatology in climate models is crucial for making any further progress toward seasonal prediction of ISMR or toward a reliable projection of it under the climate change scenarios.

Climate of India (Notes+MCQ) Free PDF Download

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5 Comments

  1. Krystle D. 07.05.2021 at 13:30

    Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure, winds and rainfall; Indian monsoons: mechanism, onset and variability.

  2. Lara B. 08.05.2021 at 15:02

    The factors which influence the Indian climate.

  3. GГ©rard C. 09.05.2021 at 14:07

    of weather and climate are the same, i.e. temperature CLIMATE. The climate of India is described as the. 'monsoon' type. In Asia, this type of climate is found.

  4. Dumpbalengllev 11.05.2021 at 00:15

    PDF | The most important facet of weather and climate in a tropical region such as ours, is rainfall. I have considered the observed space-time.

  5. Hrerafborkei 12.05.2021 at 09:23

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